Association between apoliprotein E gene polymorphism and hypercholesterolemic phenotype in Maracaibo, Zulia state, Venezuela

Nailet Arráiz, Valmore Bermúdez, Carem Prieto, Maria Patricia Sánchez, Carolina Escalona, Eileen Sanz, Netxibeth Rondón, Francia Reyes, Manuel Velasco
American Journal of Therapeutics 2010, 17 (3): 330-6
Apoliprotein (Apo) E gene polymorphisms have been associated with high plasma lipids levels and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine allelic and genotypic frequencies and to evaluate the associations of polymorphisms with hypercholesterolemic phenotypes in a patient population in Maracaibo, Zulia State. Two hundred and twenty-one patients with ages between 9 and 78 years old attending the Endocrine-Metabolic Center at the University of Zulia, Zulia, Venezuela, were recruited. The lipid profile was determined by enzymatic methods. ApoE polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. One hundred and thirty-three dyslipidemic and 88 patients with normal lipids profile were evaluated. The higher proportion of patients corresponded to hypercholesterolemia isolated (46.61%), followed by hypercholesterolemia combined with hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (21.8%). ApoE epsilon3 allele was the most frequent in the evaluated population (0.80), both in the control group (0.78) and in the dyslipidemic group (0.82), followed by the epsilon4 allele (0.12) for both groups and the epsilon2 allele with values of 0.10 and 0.06, for control and dyslipidemic group, respectively. The epsilon3epsilon3 and epsilon3epsilon4 genotypes were the most frequent in the population, with values of 62.89% and 22.17%, respectively. The genotype frequencies were 57.95% and 66.17% for epsilon3epsilon3; 23.86% and 21.05% for epsilon3epsilon4 in nondyslipidémicos and dyslipidemic patient groups, respectively. The epsilon4epsilon4 genotype was observed only in hypercholesterolemic patients. The homozygote epsilon2epsilon2 and heterozygote epsilon2epsilon3 genotypes were more frequent at the normal lipids profile group, consistent with diverse reports that indicate the association of the epsilon4 allele with elevated cholesterol levels and low cholesterol levels when the epsilon2 allele is present. ApoE polymorphism seems to be associated with variance in serum lipids levels in the population evaluated.

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