JOURNAL ARTICLE
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

The anatomy and clinical implications of perioral submuscular fat.

BACKGROUND: One of the goals of lip augmentation is to recreate the natural shape and contour of the lips. The literature describes numerous fillers and multiple techniques for this procedure. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the anatomy of the fat layers of the upper and lower lips. While prosecting cadavers, the authors noted the presence of fat deep to the orbicularis muscle of the lip and a separate fat compartment deep to the mentalis muscle. This anatomy has not been previously described.

METHODS: The authors dissected a total of 10 cadaver specimens. Dissection of the upper and lower lips and chin was performed. Latex injection of the arterial circuit aided the identification of boundaries. Histologic examination was performed on full-thickness specimens using hematoxylin and eosin stains.

RESULTS: Fat was noted deep to the orbicularis oris and mentalis muscles. This fat is distinct from the more superficial fat of the cutaneous lip. The wet-dry border of the lip appears to be the most anterior boundary of the submuscular lip fat. The lateral boundary is the zygomaticus muscle. Histologic examination confirms this macroscopic anatomy.

CONCLUSIONS: If volume loss is a significant component of facial aging, it becomes important for the clinician to know the precise anatomy of the subcutaneous tissue. Greater precision is possible in rejuvenating specific characteristics of aging. Augmentation at the vermilion cutaneous junction defines the vermilion border and improves perioral rhytides. Deep fat augmentation of the vermilion restores volume, shape, and lip eversion. Augmentation of submuscular fat beneath the cutaneous lip improves the convex shape. Submentalis fat augmentation specifically reduces the depth of the labiomental hollow. These findings are in agreement with previous observations that volume loss of deep fat--temporal, buccal, and sub-orbicularis oculi fat --contributes to the aging process. Knowledge of this anatomy and site-specific augmentation make it possible for the clinician to approach perioral rejuvenation in an algorithmic fashion.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app