Adenosine A(1) receptors determine glomerular hyperfiltration and the salt paradox in early streptozotocin diabetes mellitus

Volker Vallon, Jana Schroth, Joseph Satriano, Roland C Blantz, Scott C Thomson, Timo Rieg
Nephron. Physiology 2009, 111 (3): p30-8

BACKGROUND: In early type 1 diabetes mellitus, changes in proximal reabsorption influence glomerular filtration rate (GFR) through tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). Due to TGF, a primary increase in proximal reabsorption causes early diabetic hyperfiltration, while a heightened sensitivity of the proximal tubule to dietary salt leads to the so-called salt paradox, where a change in dietary salt causes a reciprocal change in GFR ('tubulocentric principle'). Here, experiments were performed in adenosine A(1) receptor knockout mice (A(1)R-/-), which lack an immediate TGF response, to determine whether A(1)Rs are essential for early diabetic hyperfiltration and the salt paradox.

METHODS: GFR was measured by inulin disappearance in conscious A(1)R-/- and wild-type (WT) mice after 4 weeks of streptozotocin diabetes on a control NaCl diet (1%), and measurements were repeated after 6 days of equilibration on a low-NaCl (0.1%) or a high-NaCl (4%) diet.

RESULTS: A(1)R-/- and WT were similar with respect to blood glucose, dietary intakes and body weight changes on a given diet. Diabetic hyperfiltration occurred in WT, but was blunted in A(1)R-/-. A reciprocal relationship between GFR and dietary salt was found in WT diabetics, but not A(1)R-/- diabetics or nondiabetics of either strain.

CONCLUSION: A(1)Rs determine glomerular hyperfiltration and the salt paradox in early diabetes, which is consistent with the tubulocentric principle.

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