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Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri.

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) due to Naegleria fowleri was detected in a 36-year-old, Indian countryman who had a history of taking bath in the village pond. He was admitted in a semi comatosed condition with severe frontal headache, neck stiffness, intermittent fever, nausea, vomiting, left hemiparesis and seizures. Computerized tomography (CT) scan of brain showed a soft tissue non-enhancing mass with erosion of sphenoid sinus. However CSF findings showed no fungal or bacterial pathogen. Trophozoites of Naegleria fowleri were detected in the direct microscopic examination of CSF and these were grown in culture on non-nutrient agar. The patient was put on amphotericin-B, rifampicin and ceftazidime but his condition deteriorated and was taken home by his relatives in a moribund condition against medical advice and subsequently died. A literature review of 7 previous reports of PAM in India is also presented. Four of theses eight cases were non lethal. The mean age was 13.06 years with male: female ratio of 7:1. History of contact with water was present in four cases. Trophozoites could be identified in all 8 cases in this series.

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