Laparoscopic-assisted placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters: implantation technique and results

Sven C Schmidt, Cosima Pohle, Jan M Langrehr, Guido Schumacher, Dietmar Jacob, Peter Neuhaus
Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A 2007, 17 (5): 596-9

BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis is a generally accepted method for the treatment of patients with end-stage renal failure. The laparoscopic placement of peritoneal dialysis catheters is a well-established technique and offers some advantages, such as a safer placement of the catheter, less post-operative complications, and a longer functional survival, compared to the conventional open technique. The aim of this study was to describe our implantation technique and to determine the results of our approach.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2000 and February 2006, 47 patients with end-stage chronic renal failure underwent a laparoscopic peritoneal dialysis catheter insertion procedure. Perioperative and follow-up data were collected prospectively.

RESULTS: The mean operating time was 35 minutes (range, 16-100). There was no perioperative morbidity. Nine (19.1%) patients experienced 10 mechanical complications: fluid leakage in 6 (12.8%) patients, acute hydrothorax in 1 (2.1%), catheter tip migration in 2 (4.3%), and catheter obstruction in 1 (2.1%) patient. Episodes of peritonitis were observed in 5 (10.6%) patients. One (2.1%) patient developed a catheter infection. In 3 (6.4%) patients, a port site hernia occurred that required surgical repair, 5 (10.6%) patients underwent laparoscopic revisions owing to mechanical complications, 9 (19.1%) patients underwent renal transplantation, and 6 (12.8%) patients died during the later follow-up. After a mean follow-up time of 17 months (range, 2-76), 30 (63.8%) catheters are still in use for dialysis.

CONCLUSIONS: The functional outcome of the dialysis catheters was satisfactory in the majority of patients in this study. The described technique for catheter implantation is simple and safe, and in our opinion, the laparoscopic technique should be considered as the method of choice in patients with end-stage chronic renal failure.

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