JOURNAL ARTICLE

Significance of malperfusion syndromes prior to contemporary surgical repair for acute type A dissection: outcomes and need for additional revascularizations

Arnar Geirsson, Wilson Y Szeto, Alberto Pochettino, Michael L McGarvey, Martin G Keane, Y Joseph Woo, John G Augoustides, Joseph E Bavaria
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery 2007, 32 (2): 255-62
17500002

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the significance of malperfusion syndromes in patients with acute type A aortic dissection following a contemporary surgical management algorithm and the effects on morbidity, hospital mortality, and long-term survival. We believe that obliteration of the primary tear site with restoration of flow in the true aortic lumen results in decreased need for revascularization of malperfused organ systems.

METHODS: Our operative approach aims at replacing the entire ascending aorta, resuspension of the aortic valve with repair or replacement of the sinus segment, and routine open replacement of the arch under hypothermic circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion with obliteration of false lumen at the distal arch/proximal descending thoracic aorta, thus reestablishing normal flow in the descending thoracic true lumen. From January 1993 to December 2004, 221 consecutive patients underwent repair of acute type A aortic dissection at our institution. Data were collected retrospectively and prospectively. Various types of malperfusion syndromes were present in 26.7% of patients. The organ systems with malperfusion were as follows: cardiac, 7.2%; cerebral, 7.2%; ileofemoral, 12.7%; renal, 4.1%; mesenteric, 1.4%; innominate, 5.4%; and spine, 2.2%.

RESULTS: Coronary malperfusion required coronary revascularization in 62.5% of cases. Distal revascularization was needed in 42.9% of patients with ileofemoral malperfusion. Patients with malperfusion were more likely to suffer perioperative myocardial infarction (p<0.001), postoperative coma (p=0.012), delirium (p=0.011), sepsis (p=0.006), acute renal failure (p=0.017), dialysis (p=0.018), and acute limb ischemia (p<0.001). The in-hospital mortality was 30.5% in patients presenting with any malperfusion syndrome while only 6.2% in patients without malperfusion syndrome (p<0.001). Both cardiac (p=0.020) and cerebral malperfusions (p<0.001) were risk factors for in-hospital mortality. The actuarial long-term survival in patients with malperfusion syndrome was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods to be 67.8%+/-6.1% at 1 year, 54.0%+/-7.0% at 5 years, and 43.1%+/-8.0% at 10 years and for patient without malperfusion 82.7%+/-3.0% at 1 year, 66.3%+/-3.9% at 5 years, and 46.1%+/-6.7% at 10 years (log rank 2.55, p=0.110). Cerebral malperfusion was a significant risk factor for decreased long-term survival (p=0.0002).

CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of malperfusion in patients with acute type A dissection is associated with significant increased risk of in-hospital mortality and complications. Additional revascularization is generally needed in patients with coronary malperfusion and ileofemoral malperfusion. Patients presenting with cardiac and cerebral malperfusions have a high hospital mortality and preoperative cerebral malperfusion is associated with dismal long-term survival.

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