Long-term (120-Week) antiviral efficacy and tolerability of fosamprenavir/ritonavir once daily in therapy-naive patients with HIV-1 infection: an uncontrolled, open-label, single-arm follow-on study

Joseph C Gathe, Robin Wood, Ian Sanne, Edwin DeJesus, Dirk Schürmann, Andrzej Gladysz, Cindy Garris, Naomi Givens, Robert Elston, Jane Yeo
Clinical Therapeutics 2006, 28 (5): 745-54

BACKGROUND: In the SOLO study (APV30002), once-daily antiretroviral treatment with the protease inhibitor fosamprenavir (FPV) 1,400 mg boosted by ritonavir (r) 200 mg plus abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) was found to be noninferior to nelfinavir plus ABC/3TC over 48 weeks in treatment-naive patients with HIV -1 infection.

OBJECTIVE: This interim report presents antiviral efficacy and tolerability data from 211 patients who received FPV/r QD for at least 48 weeks in SOLO and continued this treatment in the follow-on study (APV30005) for up to 120 weeks.

METHODS: APV30005 is an international, multicenter, uncontrolled, open-label, follow-on study conducted to provide continued access to FPV in patients with HIV-1 infection who had participated in previous FPV studies, including SOLO, and to obtain longer-term data on the antiviral response and tolerability of an FPV-containing regimen. Patients who had completed at least 48 weeks of FPV/r therapy in the SOLO study were eligible to enter the follow-on study and continue receiving FPV/r 1,400/200 QD, with study visits every 12 weeks. Their background regimens were chosen at the investigators' discretion and could be changed at any time. Antiviral response end points included plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <400 and <50 copies/mL, median plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, median and absolute changes from baseline in the CD4 cell count, and the frequency of HIV disease progression. Genotype and phenotype analyses were performed for patients meeting the criterion for virologic failure (defined as plasma HIV -1 RNA >1,000 copies/mL on 2 consecutive occasions on or after week 12). Tolerability was assessed in terms of adverse-event reports evaluated by the primary investigator and changes in laboratory values. Assessments were conducted at 12-week intervals during the follow-on study. Data from the baseline visit (day 1 of SOLO) were compared with data from the follow-on study through March 31, 2004, when all patients had completed at least 120 weeks of therapy with FPV/r QD. Because this was a rollover study, no significance testing was performed and all reported results are descriptive.

RESULTS: The demographic and baseline characteristics of the patients who received FPV/r QD in this follow on study (N = 211) were similar to those of the 322 patients randomized to receive FPV/r QD in the SOLO study. Their median age was 36 years, 72% were male, 49% were white, and 39% were black. The median baseline plasma HIV 1 RNA level was 4.82 log(10) copies/ mL, and the median baseline CD4+ cell count was 168 cells/mm(3). The median duration of exposure to FPV/r QD from SOLO baseline through the cutoff date was 996 days (142 weeks), ranging from 372 to 1,226 days (53-175 weeks). At week 120, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <400 and <50 copies/mL were achieved and maintained in 75% (159) and 66% (139) of patients, respectively, when missing data and discontinuations were counted as failures. The median CD4+ cell count at week 120 was 451 cells/mm(3), a median change from baseline of 292 cells/mm(3). In 14 patients with no baseline resistance who met the criterion for virologic failure, no viral protease resistance mutations were detected. Extended treatment was generally well tolerated. The most frequently reported drug-related grade 2-4 adverse events were diarrhea (22 [10%]), nausea (17 [8%]), drug hypersensitivity (14 [7%], all cases attributed to ABC, which was a study drug in SOLO), and increased triglycerides (14 [7%]). The nature of adverse events reported after 48 weeks of therapy was comparable to that reported before week 48. Adverse events occurred at a similar or lower frequency between weeks 48 and 120 compared with before week 48. Similarly, laboratory abnormalities seen by week 120 were comparable to those seen by week 48, although they were less frequent.

CONCLUSIONS: Extended treatment (120 weeks) with FPV/r QD in these antiretroviral therapy-naive, HIV-1-infected patients was associated with sustained antiviral response and immunologic improvement. Adverse events had generally developed by 48 weeks of therapy and did not occur at a higher frequency through 120 weeks of treatment.

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