OPEN IN READ APP
JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment of acute biliary pancreatitis

N Alexakis, J P Neoptolemos
Scandinavian Journal of Surgery: SJS 2005, 94 (2): 124-9
16111094
Gallstones are the commonest cause of acute pancreatitis in developed countries. There is now a considerable evidence base consolidated by a series of systematic reviews, meta-analyses and guidelines that has established a clear algorithm for diagnosis and management. In the majority of patients the combination of ultrasonography and serum alanine transaminase > or = 60 iu/l < or = 48 hours of symptoms will identify gallstones as the cause. The simplest method of severity assessment is a high level of serum C-reactive protein (> 150 mg/l up to 72 hours after symptoms). In mild disease, all fit patients must undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy with intraoperative cholangiography or if not fit for surgery then endoscopic sphincterotomy during the same admission to prevent further attacks. All patients with severe disease should undergo endoscopic sphincterotomy in less than 72 hours. Patients with > 30% necrosis should undergo fine needle aspiration for bacteriology. Necrosectomy is indicated for infected necrosis or sterile necrosis if there are persisting clinically significant symptoms. There is increasing evidence for the use of minimally invasive pancreatic necrosectomy. Enteral nutrition should be instituted whenever possible but antibiotics should be reserved for patients with proven sepsis. The presence of fungal infection requires active anti-fungal therapy. Patients with severe disease should undergo cholecystectomy at a later stage. Patients who have undergone necrosectomy require long-term follow-up because of delayed complications.

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Available on the App Store

Available on the Play Store
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
16111094
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"