Patient self-management program for diabetes: first-year clinical, humanistic, and economic outcomes

Daniel G Garrett, Benjamin M Bluml
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA 2005, 45 (2): 130-7

OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcomes for the first year following the initiation of a multisite community pharmacy care services (PCS) program for patients with diabetes.

DESIGN: Quasi-experimental, pre-post cohort study.

SETTING: 80 community pharmacy providers with diabetes certificate program training who were reimbursed for PCS by employers in Greensboro, N.C., Wilson, N.C., Dublin, Ga., Manitowoc County, Wis., and Columbus, Ohio.

PATIENTS: 256 patients with diabetes covered by self-insured employers' health plans.

INTERVENTIONS: Community pharmacist patient care services using scheduled consultations, clinical goal setting, monitoring, and collaborative drug therapy management with physicians and referrals to diabetes educators.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in glycosylated hemoglobin (AIC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), blood pressure, influenza vaccinations, foot examinations, eye examinations, patient goals for nutrition, exercise, and weight, patient satisfaction, and changes medical and medication utilization and costs.

RESULTS: Over the initial year of the program, participants' mean A1C decreased from 7.9% at initial visit to 7.1%, mean LDL-C decreased from 113.4 mg/dL to 104.5 mg/dL, and mean systolic blood pressured decreased from 136.2 mm Hg to 131.4 mm Hg. During this time, influenza vaccination rate increased from 52% to 77%, the eye examination rate increased from 46% to 82%, and the foot examination rate increased from 38% to 80%. Patient satisfaction with overall diabetes care improved from 57% of responses in the highest range at baseline to 87% at this level after 6 months, and 95.7% of patients reported being very satisfied or satisfied with the diabetes care provided by their pharmacists. Total mean health care costs per patient were $918 lower than projections for the initial year of enrollment.

CONCLUSION: Patients who participated in the program had significant improvement in clinical indicators of diabetes management, higher rates of self-management goal setting and achievement, and increased satisfaction with diabetes care, and employers experienced a decline in mean projected total direct medical costs.

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