JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Differentiating clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of chordal rupture detected in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease and floppy mitral valve: impact of the infective endocarditis on chordal rupture.

AIMS: We aimed to compare the clinical and echocardiographic correlates of chordal rupture in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease and floppy mitral valve.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The study group comprised of 224 patients who underwent transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography because of the severe mitral regurgitation. Chordal rupture was detected in 58 (25.9%) out of the 224 patients, in 33 out of the 83 (39.7%) patients with floppy mitral valve, and in 25 out of the 141 (17.7%) patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease. Chordal rupture was more frequently associated with anterior leaflet (80%) in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease, and posterior leaflet (72.7%) in patients with floppy mitral valve (p<0.05). Univariate correlates of chordal rupture were age, male sex, posterior mitral leaflet thickening and chordal elongation in patients with floppy mitral valve (p<0.05), and chordal shortening (p<0.0001) and infective endocarditis involving mitral anterior leaflet (p<0.05) in rheumatic group. Independent predictors of chordal rupture were age (>50 years), posterior mitral leaflet thickness (> or =0.45cm), and male sex (p<0.05) in patients with floppy mitral valve while infective endocarditis involving mitral anterior leaflet (p<0.05) in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease. Patients with chordal rupture due to floppy mitral valve had an older age (p<0.0001), a male dominance, longer mitral leaflets and chordae, and a larger mitral annulus circumference (p<0.05) as compared to those with rheumatic chordal rupture. Despite the comparable severity of mitral regurgitation and left atrial diameters between the two groups of chordal rupture (p>0.05), functional class and pulmonary artery systolic pressure were higher, and atrial fibrillation, acute deterioration, infective endocarditis, mitral leaflet rupture and need for mitral valve surgery in the 3 months were more frequent in rheumatic chordal rupture subgroup (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Chordal rupture seems to be more frequently associated with anterior mitral leaflet in rheumatic mitral valve disease, whereas it was the posterior leaflet in floppy mitral valve. Chordal rupture was related to male sex, older age, posterior leaflet thickening, and chordal elongation in patients with floppy mitral valve. However, infective endocarditis, acute deterioration, and need for early mitral surgery were more frequent in patients with rheumatic chordal rupture.

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