JOURNAL ARTICLE

Lovastatin inhibits tumor growth and lung metastasis in mouse mammary carcinoma model: a p53-independent mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic mechanism

Masa-Aki Shibata, Yuko Ito, Junji Morimoto, Yoshinori Otsuki
Carcinogenesis 2004, 25 (10): 1887-98
15180944
The effects of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, were studied in a mouse model of metastatic mammary cancer carrying a p53 mutation. Mice bearing mammary tumors, induced by inoculation of syngeneic BALB/c mice with BJMC3879 cells, were treated with lovastatin at 0, 25 and 50 mg/kg three times a week. Tumor volumes were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner throughout the 6 week study and were associated with both a decrease in DNA synthesis and an increase in apoptosis. The high dose of lovastatin also inhibited lung metastasis. In a corollary in vitro study, flow cytometric analyses of lovastatin-treated mammary cancer cells additionally showed cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and decreases in S and G2/M phases. Laser scanning cytometric analyses further demonstrated that cancer cells in S and G2/M were particularly susceptible to the effects of lovastatin. Transmission electron microscopic evaluation of TUNEL-confirmed apoptotic bodies in lovastatin-treated mammary carcinoma cells revealed many free 3'-OH ends of DNA in condensed chromatin within fragmented nuclei that occasionally assumed a characteristic half-moon shape. Consistent with initiation of apoptosis, cellular caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities were elevated in lovastatin-treated cells. The mitochondrial membrane potential was also decreased, with subsequent release of cytochrome c. However, lovastatin-induced cell death was significantly reduced by the broad spectrum caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, as well as the caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEHD-fmk and the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk, but not by the specific caspase-8 inhibitor z-IETD-fmk. Since immunoelectron microscopy showed translocation of Bax to the mitochondria in lovastatin-treated cells, lovastatin-induced apoptosis may, therefore, be ultimately dependent on Bax induction of cytochrome c release. These results suggest that lovastatin may be useful as an adjuvant therapy in breast cancers containing p53 mutations due to its ability to both suppress DNA synthesis and induce p53-independent mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
15180944
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"