Sodium fraction excretion rate in nocturnal enuresis correlates with nocturnal polyuria and osmolality

Gabriella Aceto, Rosa Penza, Maurizio Delvecchio, Maria Laura Chiozza, Marcello Cimador, Paolo Caione
Journal of Urology 2004, 171 (6): 2567-70

PURPOSE: We verify the sodium fraction excretion rate (FE Na) and potassium fraction excretion (FE K) rates in monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. We also correlate FE Na and FE K to urinary osmolality, nocturnal polyuria and vasopressin in the same population.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 438 children 6 to 15 years old (mean age 9.7) presenting with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis were recruited from different centers. Inclusion criteria were 3 or greater wet nights a week, no daytime incontinence and no treatment in the previous 2 months. Exclusion criteria were cardiopathy, endocrinopathy, psychiatric problems and urinary tract abnormalities. Micturition chart, diurnal (8 am to 8 pm) and nocturnal (8 pm to 8 am) urine collection, including separate diuresis volumes, (Na, K and Ca) electrolytes and osmolality were evaluated, as well as serum electrolytes, creatinine and nocturnal (4 am) vasopressin. Diurnal and nocturnal FE K and FE Na were calculated. ANOVA test, chi-square test, Student's t test and Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS: : Nocturnal polyuria (diurnal to nocturnal diuresis ratio less than 1) was found in 273 children (62.3%, group 1 and nocturnal urine volumes were normal in 165 with enuresis (37.7%, group 2). Nocturnal FE Na was abnormal in 179 children (40.8%), including 118 in group 1 (43.2%) and 61 in group 2 (36.9%) (chi-square not significant). FE Na was also increased in nocturnal versus daytime diuresis (Student's t test p <0.001). In group 1 nocturnal FE Na correlated with nocturnal diuresis (Pearson correlation p = 0.003, r = +0.175), while daytime FE Na and nocturnal FE Na correlated with diurnal diuresis (Pearson correlation p = 0.001, r = +0.225 and Pearson correlation p = 0.001, r = +0.209, respectively). In group 2 nocturnal FE Na did not correlate with diuresis (Pearson correlation p = 0.103, r = +0.128) but correlated with vasopressin values (Pearson correlation p = 0.042, r = -0.205). Urine osmolality was reduced in 140 children (31.9%) and correlated with nocturnal diuresis (Pearson correlation p = 0.003, r = -0.321). Vasopressin was decreased in 332 children (75.8%, 62.6% in group 1 and 13.2% in group 2). No significant difference was found between sexes and age of enuretic subgroups.

CONCLUSIONS: Nocturnal FE Na correlates with nocturnal diuresis, whereas daytime FE Na does not. FE K in daytime and nighttime diuresis does not statistically differ in nocturnal polyuric and nonpolyuric enuretic groups. Osmolality correlates with nocturnal diuresis, and vasopressin at 4 am was lower in the nocturnal polyuric group. The hypothesis of a subset of enuretic patients presenting with nocturnal polyuria associated with high nocturnal natriuria and low vasopressin values has been confirmed.

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