Blocking NF-kappaB activation may be an effective strategy in the fever therapy

Jie-Jen Lee, Wu-Tein Huang, Dong-Zi Shao, Jyh-Fei Liao, Mao-Tsun Lin
Japanese Journal of Physiology 2003, 53 (5): 367-75
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) to synthesize or release pyrogenic cytokines, including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) influences inflammatory responses through the regulation of genes encoding cytokines. In the present study, experiments were carried out to determine whether an inhibition of NF-kappaB mechanisms causes an inhibition of pyrogenic cytokine synthesis or release from PBMC and results in antipyresis. Intravenous administration of the supernatant fluids obtained from the human PBMC incubated with LPS caused feverlike hyperthermia in rabbits. The febrile responses were in parallel with the levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha in supernatant fluids. Both the fever and the increased levels of these cytokines in supernatant fluids were decreased by incubating LPS-PBMC with NF-kappaB inhibitors, including pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, sodium pyrithione, N-acetyl-cysteine, and curcumin. Moreover, an intravenous administration of LPS (0.5-2 microg/kg) produced dose-dependent fever in the rabbits. The fevers were in parallel with the levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha in rabbit serum. A pretreatment of rabbits with an intravenous injection of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, sodium pryithione, N-acetyl-cysteine, or curcumin 1 h before the intravenous administration of LPS significantly attenuated the LPS-induced fever and/or increased levels of these cytokines in the serum of rabbits. Furthermore, pretreatment with an intravenous dose of anti-IL-1beta, anti-IL-6, or anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody significantly attenuated the fever induced by the intravenous injection of LPS in rabbits. The antipyretic effects exerted by anti-L-1beta monoclonal antibody were greater than those exerted by anti-L-6 or anti-NF-alpha monoclonal antibody. The data indicate that NF-kappaB activation correlates with an LPS-induced synthesis or a release of cytokines (in particular, IL-1beta) from PBMC and triggers fever. Blocking NF-kappaB mechanisms in the PBMC with NF-kappaB inhibitors may be an effective strategy in the fever therapy.

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