[The age of formation of Czech clinical medicine]

J Sváb
Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských 2002 November 22, 141 (23): 742-4
Era of Emperor Francis Joseph I is said to be a golden age for the Czech nation. It can be found in numerous panegyric articles to any jubilee of the emperor's rule. What was formally dictated by respect brought by education and by the system of the Greek and Roman tradition adopted in Austria in Middle Ages, seams to be valid today as most of the contemporary technical and economical progress roots within those days. The Czech cultures namely music and art reached international acknowledgement. Though with difficulties, Czech achieved in education and in science as a full-fledged language. After the year 1848 an average citizen was entitled to such freedom as never before. Technical, economical and cultural progress enabled real ascent of the Czech society and its social differentiation. In sixties, after the Austria-Hungary Alignment, Hapsburg government undertook no serious restrains. Such development was nothing unusual. Similar one underwent after the period of storms all European societies from south to north and form west to east. They brought ideas of the French revolution and years 1848/1849 are therefore called "the spring of European nations". In all countries where revolutionary ideas were represented and various countermeasures were accepted, governments were forced to accept temporary arrangements (in Austrian monarchy it was the promise of constitution, language compromise etc.). Nevertheless, in the second half of the 19th century the most important condition for further revival was the long period of peace and stability of international relations. The internal stability of the Austrian monarchy was achieved for long time by the Austria-Hungary Alignment in 1867. After the lost battle at Hradec Kralove in summer 1866 it became clear that contemporary centralistic organization of the state, balancing between absolutism and constitutionalism is not further tenable. Years long pressure of patriotic forces in the parliament brought about division of the Charles-Ferdinand University. Important role in the partition of the Czech Medical Faculty from the German one had the foundation of the Czech Medical Society and the Czech Medical Journal in 1862 patronaged by professors Purkynĕ, Eiselt, Grégr and others. That was the platform for the conception of the Czech medical terminology. Partition of faculties was decided by the law, which was accepted at February 28, 1882. The Czech Medical Faculty was opened only at 1883 because Emperor resolved that professors themselves had to decide to either faculty their clinics would belong. Only professor Eiselt with the First clinic of internal medicine, Weiss with the clinic of surgery and Streng with clinic of obstetrics were assigned to the Czech faculty. Till the official opening on October 15, 1882 all other departments and clinics had to be organized. Though Professor Vilem Weiss as the head of the department and dean of the faculty had his opening Czech lecture already on April 28, 1882, due to material and personal reasons the Czech Medical Faculty was opened only one year later than Faculties of law and philosophy. Most of the eminent members of the Medical faculty remained at the German faculty. However, having higher number of students the Czech faculty became larger and was attended by students from the whole Slavonic world.

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