REVIEW
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Postthoracotomy pain management.

The following techniques appear efficacious in controlling postthoracotomy pain and reducing the amount of systemic opioids consumed: continuous intercostal blockade, paravertebral blockade, and epidural opioids and/or anesthetics. The combination of thoracic epidural opioid and local anesthetic is very effective at relieving postthoracotomy pain, however, considerable experience is required for insertion of the thoracic epidural catheter and postoperative respiratory monitoring. Intercostal and paravertebral catheters can be inserted intraoperatively under direct visualization, to reduce complications of insertion. One-time intraoperative intercostal blockade may effectively reduce postoperative pain in the first day, but is not a practical long-term method for postthoracotomy pain. The effectiveness of interpleural analgesia, even with proper technique, appears inferior to epidural and other regional techniques. We have incorporated the principles outlined in this review into our general thoracic surgery protocol, as detailed in Fig. 1. Every patient is assessed preoperatively for epidural catheter placement. Contraindications include low platelet count (< 100,000), abnormal coagulation profile, medicinal anticoagulation (aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories are not contraindications), bony spinal abnormalities, or neurological disorders. The T5/6 interspace is our preferred level, but T10 can work well with an increased dose of bupivacaine. Upon completion of the muscle sparing, minimal-access thoracotomy, we close the wound and perform a percutaneous intercostal nerve block (two ribs above and three below the incision). We then use patient-controlled epidural analgesia, with a basal infusion of bupivacaine and hydromorphone. To supplement inadequate or nonfunctioning epidurals, intravenous patient-controlled opioids are added. When choosing an approach to postthoracotomy pain management, the thoracic surgeon and anesthesiologist must consider the following: (1) the physician's experience, familiarity and personal complication rate with specific techniques; (2) the desired extent of local and systemic pain control; (3) the presence of contraindications to specific analgesic techniques and medications; and (4) availability of appropriate facilities for patient assessment and monitoring postthoracotomy. Refinements in surgical technique including limited or muscle-sparing thoracotomy, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and robotic surgery may lessen the magnitude of postthoracotomy pain. We encourage all thoracic surgeons to be knowledgeable of available techniques and maintain a protocol to generate a database for periodic assessment of safety and efficacy.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app