JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

ABCD1 mutations and the X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mutation database: role in diagnosis and clinical correlations

S Kemp, A Pujol, H R Waterham, B M van Geel, C D Boehm, G V Raymond, G R Cutting, R J Wanders, H W Moser
Human Mutation 2001, 18 (6): 499-515
11748843
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene, which encodes a peroxisomal ABC half-transporter (ALDP) involved in the import of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) into the peroxisome. The disease is characterized by a striking and unpredictable variation in phenotypic expression. Phenotypes include the rapidly progressive childhood cerebral form (CCALD), the milder adult form, adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), and variants without neurologic involvement. There is no apparent correlation between genotype and phenotype. In males, unambiguous diagnosis can be achieved by demonstration of elevated levels of VLCFA in plasma. In 15 to 20% of obligate heterozygotes, however, test results are false-negative. Therefore, mutation analysis is the only reliable method for the identification of heterozygotes. Since most X-ALD kindreds have a unique mutation, a great number of mutations have been identified in the ABCD1 gene in the last seven years. In order to catalog and facilitate the analysis of these mutations, we have established a mutation database for X-ALD ( http://www.x-ald.nl). In this review we report a detailed analysis of all 406 X-ALD mutations currently included in the database. Also, we present 47 novel mutations. In addition, we review the various X-ALD phenotypes, the different diagnostic tools, and the need for extended family screening for the identification of new patients.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
11748843
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"