Mary Kathryn Abel, Kaitlyn Wald, Marcelle I Cedars, Martha Noel
PURPOSE: The intrauterine device (IUD) is one of the most effective and safe contraceptive methods. Substantial literature suggests an overall return to normal fertility following IUD removal. However, there are no studies to date that evaluate endometrial function specifically in nulliparous women after levonorgestrel IUD use. METHODS: We present three nulliparous women with a history of levonorgestrel IUD use who were evaluated for uterine dysfunction at the University of California, San Francisco Center for Reproductive Health...
April 8, 2021: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Si-Ting Huang, Zhi-Jing Song, Yu Liu, Wen-Chen Luo, Qian Yin, Yong-Mei Zhang
Visceral hypersensitivity as a common clinical manifestation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may contribute to the development of chronic visceral pain. Our prior studies authenticated that the activation of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contributed to visceral hypersensitivity in mice, but puzzles still remain with respect to the underlying hyperactivation of corticotropin-releasing factor neurons. Herein, we employed maternal separation (MS) to establish mouse model of visceral hypersensitivity...
2021: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Aditya M Kondajji, Audree Evans, Meachelle Lum, Daniel Kulinich, Ansley Unterberger, Kevin Ding, Courtney Duong, Kunal Patel, Isaac Yang
BACKGROUND: The seizure activity associated with hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) is refractory to medical management and surgical intervention is often required. Stereotactic Radiofrequency Ablation (SRFA) is a minimally invasive technique offering targeted lesion ablation with a reduced risk of complications. OBJECTIVE: Here, we review the current literature on the use of SRFA for HHs. METHODS: This study was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic literature review...
March 27, 2021: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Francesca Cioppi, Viktoria Rosta, Csilla Krausz
Azoospermia affects 1% of men, and it can be due to: (i) hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction, (ii) primary quantitative spermatogenic disturbances, (iii) urogenital duct obstruction. Known genetic factors contribute to all these categories, and genetic testing is part of the routine diagnostic workup of azoospermic men. The diagnostic yield of genetic tests in azoospermia is different in the different etiological categories, with the highest in Congenital Bilateral Absence of Vas Deferens (90%) and the lowest in Non-Obstructive Azoospermia (NOA) due to primary testicular failure (~30%)...
March 23, 2021: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Larisa Dzirlo, Felix Richter, Dagmar Steinmair, Henriette Löffler-Stastka
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), as part of the functional somatic syndromes, is frequent in the general population. Medical care and morbidity costs are high, and so is the psychological and somatic strain. The etiopathogenesis of IBS is still poorly understood; it is assumed to be multifactorial and to include biopsychosocial factors. Links between the intestine, psyche, nervous system (e.g., via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-Axis/neurotransmitters) and with the microbiome, the immune system have lately been investigated...
March 9, 2021: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Bashair M Mussa, Ankita Srivastava, Anthony J M Verberne
In December 2019, a novel coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China. The virus infection, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), represents a global concern, as almost all countries around the world are affected. Clinical reports have confirmed several neurological manifestations in COVID-19 patients such as headaches, vomiting, and nausea, indicating the involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)...
March 17, 2021: Viruses
Marco Carli, Shivakumar Kolachalam, Biancamaria Longoni, Anna Pintaudi, Marco Baldini, Stefano Aringhieri, Irene Fasciani, Paolo Annibale, Roberto Maggio, Marco Scarselli
Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are commonly prescribed medications to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and other psychotic disorders. However, they might cause metabolic syndrome (MetS) in terms of weight gain, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and high blood pressure, which are responsible for reduced life expectancy and poor adherence. Importantly, there is clear evidence that early metabolic disturbances can precede weight gain, even if the latter still remains the hallmark of AAPs use. In fact, AAPs interfere profoundly with glucose and lipid homeostasis acting mostly on hypothalamus, liver, pancreatic β-cells, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle...
March 8, 2021: Pharmaceuticals
Cees Noordam, Charlotte Höybye, Urs Eiholzer
Prader-Labhart-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability, behavioural problems, hypothalamic dysfunction and specific dysmorphisms. Hypothalamic dysfunction causes dysregulation of energy balance and endocrine deficiencies, including hypogonadism. Although hypogonadism is prevalent in males and females with PWS, knowledge about this condition is limited. In this review, we outline the current knowledge on the clinical, biochemical, genetic and histological features of hypogonadism in PWS and its treatment...
March 8, 2021: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Luigi Maione, Claire Bouvattier, Ursula B Kaiser
Central precocious puberty (CPP) results from early activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The current state of knowledge of the complex neural network acting at the level of the hypothalamus and the GnRH neuron to control puberty onset has expanded, particularly in the context of molecular interactions. Along with these advances, the knowledge of pubertal physiology and pathophysiology have also increased. This review focuses on regulatory abnormalities occurring at the hypothalamic level of the HPG axis to cause CPP...
April 2, 2021: Clinical Endocrinology
Rossella Gaudino, Valentina Orlandi, Paolo Cavarzere, Matteo Chinello, Franco Antoniazzi, Simone Cesaro, Giorgio Piacentini
In early 2020, a novel coronavirus leading to potentially death was discovered. Since then, the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread to become a worldwide pandemic. Beyond the risks strictly related to the infection, concerns have been expressed for the endocrinological impact that COVID-19 may have, especially in vulnerable individuals with pre-existing endocrinological health conditions. To date new information is emerging regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children but the literature is still scarce concerning this infection in patients with intracranial malignant neoplasms...
2021: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Nazan Dolapoğlu, Banu Pınar Şarer Yürekli, Mehmet Çağdaş Eker, Hayriye Elbi
Introduction: Agouti-Related Peptide (AgRP) is expressed primarily in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, stimulates appetite and decreases metabolism and energy expenditure. The aim of our study is to evaluate the relationship between serum Agouti-Related Peptide (AgRP) levels and metabolic syndrome in euthymic bipolar patients. Methods: Forty euthymic bipolar patients who used only mood stabilizer for at least three months and 40 healthy volunteers as control group were included in the study...
March 2021: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
Abdullah Bereket
BACKGROUND: Craniopharyngioma (CP), despite being a malformational tumor of low histological grade, causes considerable morbidity and mortality mostly due to hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunction that is created by tumor itself or its treatment. SUMMARY: Fluid-electrolyte disturbances which range from dehydration to fluid overload and from hypernatremia to hyponatremia are frequently encountered during the acute postoperative period and should be carefully managed to avoid permanent neurological sequelae...
April 1, 2021: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Santiago Ballaz, Nicole Espinosa, Michel Bourin
Alcohol use disorder or alcoholism is characterized by uncontrollable alcohol use and intoxication, as well as a heightened state of anxiety after alcohol withdrawal. Ethanol-associated stimuli also drive the urge to drink by means of classical conditioning. Alcoholism has been considered a dopamine (DA) dysregulation syndrome that involves the activity of the central amygdala circuitry of anxiety. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is the most abundant neuropeptide in the mammal brain, where it activates two receptors, CCK1 and CCK2 ...
March 29, 2021: Neuropharmacology
Ling-Yu Shen, Xiong-Fei Chang, Liang Pan, Xiao-Jing Liu, Zhen-Fan Yang, Hui Hu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the expression of Kisspeptin protein and activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis(HPOA) in rats with Letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Female SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, PCOS model and EA groups (n=6 rats in each group). The PCOS model was established by continuous gavage of letrozole for 21 d. EA(2 Hz/100 Hz, 0.6-1.4 mA) was applied to bilateral "Daimai" (GB26) for 20 min, once every day for 15 d...
February 25, 2021: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Mao Yagihashi, Michiko Kano, Tomohiko Muratsubaki, Joe Morishita, Keishi Kono, Yukari Tanaka, Motoyori Kanazawa, Shin Fukudo
The physiological and psychological mechanisms explaining the individual variability in the stress response are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal (HPA) axis responses to colorectal stimulation affect HPA axis reactivity to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the visceral pain threshold, and perceived stress. We examined 31 healthy volunteers and 27 individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. According to the ACTH response to colorectal stimulation, the participants were classified into three groups: flattened, decreased, and increased...
March 27, 2021: Neuroscience Research
Andrew Tannous, Andrew P Bradford, Katherine Kuhn, Angela Fought, Irene Schauer, Nanette Santoro
CONTEXT: Obesity, is a state of chronic inflammation, characterized by elevated lipids, insulin resistance and relative hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We have defined the accompanying decreased Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), ovarian steroids and reduced pituitary response to Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) as Reprometabolic syndrome, a phenotype that can be induced in healthy normal weight women (NWW) by acute infusion of free fatty acids and insulin...
2021: PloS One
Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros, Raymond Joseph Rodgers, Robert John Norman
BACKGROUND: Metabolic and endocrine alterations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affect adipose tissue mass and distribution. PCOS is characterised by hyperandrogenism, obesity and adipocyte dysfunction. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS drives dysfunctional adipocyte secretion of potentially harmful adipocytokines. Glucocorticoids and sex-steroids modulate adipocyte development and function. For their part, adipocyte products interact with adrenal and ovarian steroidogenic cells...
March 25, 2021: Human Reproduction Update
Yuichiro Yoneoka, Masayasu Okada
Pituitary adenomas are the most common cause of sellar masses although there are a number of other neoplastic, infectious, inflammatory, developmental, and vascular etiologies that should be considered. Pregnancy promotes a physiological increase in the size of the maternal pituitary gland, especially adenohypophysis. The normal maturation sequence of the pituitary gland apparently involves a period of physiological hypertrophy in teenagers. As most incidentalomas in pediatric patients are not associated with hormonal hypersecretion or hypopituitarism, and structural progression is not common, it is hypothesized that the extensive follow-up assessment recommended for adults might not be necessary for children...
March 2021: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Amanda Veiga Cheuiche, Leticia Guimarães da Silveira, Leila Cristina Pedroso de Paula, Iara Regina Siqueira Lucena, Sandra Pinho Silveiro
The classic definition of precocious sexual maturation is the development of secondary sexual characteristics before 8 years of age in girls and before 9 years of age in boys. It is classified as central precocious puberty when premature maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis occurs, and as peripheral precocious puberty when there is excessive secretion of sex hormones, independent of gonadotropin secretion. Precocious sexual maturation is more common in girls, generally central precocious puberty of idiopathic origin...
March 21, 2021: European Journal of Pediatrics
Aditya Ambati, Ryan Hillary, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Hanna M Ollila, Ling Lin, Emmanuel H During, Neal Farber, Thomas J Rico, Juliette Faraco, Eileen Leary, Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Yu-Shu Huang, Fang Han, Yakov Sivan, Michel Lecendreux, Pauline Dodet, Makoto Honda, Natan Gadoth, Sona Nevsimalova, Fabio Pizza, Takashi Kanbayashi, Rosa Peraita-Adrados, Guy D Leschziner, Rosa Hasan, Francesca Canellas, Kazuhiko Kume, Makrina Daniilidou, Patrice Bourgin, David Rye, José L Vicario, Birgit Hogl, Seung Chul Hong, Guiseppe Plazzi, Geert Mayer, Anne Marie Landtblom, Yves Dauvilliers, Isabelle Arnulf, Emmanuel Jean-Marie Mignot
Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder characterized by severe episodic hypersomnia, with cognitive impairment accompanied by apathy or disinhibition. Pathophysiology is unknown, although imaging studies indicate decreased activity in hypothalamic/thalamic areas during episodes. Familial occurrence is increased, and risk is associated with reports of a difficult birth. We conducted a worldwide case-control genome-wide association study in 673 KLS cases collected over 14 y, and ethnically matched 15,341 control individuals...
March 23, 2021: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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