E Valerie Daniel, Michael J Kleiman, James E Galvin
BACKGROUND: African American and Hispanic older adults are reported to have up to a 2-fold higher risk of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD), but the reasons for this increased vulnerability have not been fully explored. The Vulnerability Index (VI) was designed to identify individuals who are at risk of developing cognitive impairment in the future, capturing 12 sociodemographic variables and modifiable medical comorbidities associated with higher ADRD risk. However, a prior limitation of the VI was that the original study cohort had limited diversity...
November 24, 2022: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jeffrey R Petrella, Andrew M Michael, Min Qian, Adaora Nwosu, Joel Sneed, Terry E Goldberg, Davangere P Devanand, P Murali Doraiswamy
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a high risk group for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Computerized Cognitive Games Training (CCT) is an investigational strategy to improve targeted functions in MCI through the modulation of cognitive networks. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the effect of CCT versus a non-targeted active brain exercise on functional cognitive networks. METHODS: 107 patients with MCI were randomized to CCT or web-based crossword puzzles...
November 25, 2022: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Wei Ying Tan, Carol Hargreaves, Christopher Chen, Saima Hilal
BACKGROUND: The major mechanisms of dementia and cognitive impairment are vascular and neurodegenerative processes. Early diagnosis of cognitive impairment can facilitate timely interventions to mitigate progression. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop a reliable machine learning (ML) model using socio-demographics, vascular risk factors, and structural neuroimaging markers for early diagnosis of cognitive impairment in a multi-ethnic Asian population. METHODS: The study consisted of 911 participants from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study (aged 60- 88 years, 49...
November 24, 2022: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Bang-Sheng Wu, Ya-Ru Zhang, Liu Yang, Wei Zhang, Yue-Ting Deng, Shi-Dong Chen, Jian-Feng Feng, Wei Cheng, Jin-Tai Yu
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients rank among the highest levels of comorbidities compared to persons with other diseases. However, it is unclear whether the conditions are caused by shared pathophysiology due to the genetic pleiotropy for AD risk genes. OBJECTIVE: To figure out the genetic pleiotropy for AD risk genes in a wide range of diseases. METHODS: We estimated the polygenic risk score (PRS) for AD and tested the association between PRS and 16 ICD10 main chapters, 136 ICD10 level-1 chapters, and 377 diseases with cases more than 1,000 in 312,305 individuals without AD diagnosis from the UK Biobank...
November 21, 2022: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Alina Königsberg, Matthias H Belau, Leonie Ascone, Jürgen Gallinat, Simone Kühn, Märit Jensen, Christian Gerloff, Bastian Cheng, Götz Thomalla
BACKGROUND: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is considered to be a preliminary stage of dementia, and its prevalence is increasing with age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the association of SCD with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a large population-based sample. METHODS: We analyzed data of the first 10,000 participants from the Hamburg City Health Study in Germany, a single center prospective cohort study, aged between 45 and 74 years that scored higher than 25 points in the Mini-Mental State Examination and had no known pre-existing dementia...
November 21, 2022: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Maria Maćkowiak, Agnieszka Libura, Lyn Phillipson, Dorota Szcześniak, Joanna Rymaszewska
BACKGROUND: With the increasing incidences of dementia in aging societies, attention should be paid to the social context in which people with dementia live. One of its aspects is language transmitting beliefs, perceptions, and behavioral patterns. An analysis of understanding the diagnostic label of dementia may reveal the role of semantics in the process of social cognition of this disease. OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of this study was to investigate the understanding of the word dementia (otępienie) in the Polish language...
November 19, 2022: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Mónica C Acevedo-Molina, Sean C Thayer, Kiley Horn, Hanna Nkulu, Lee Ryan, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Matthew D Grilli
OBJECTIVE: Remembering and imagining personal events that are rich in episodic (i.e., event-specific) detail is compromised in older adults who have mild cognitive impairment, a known risk factor for Alzheimer's disease dementia. Less clear is whether lower episodic detail generation is associated with higher risk for Alzheimer's disease dementia before mild clinical decline is detectable. METHOD: We compared past and future autobiographical thinking in clinically normal older adult carriers of the Alzheimer's disease-associated apolipoprotein E e4 allele (APOE4; n = 39) to demographically and neuropsychologically similar non-APOE4 carriers ( n = 43)...
November 28, 2022: Neuropsychology
Pietro Davide Trimarchi, Emma Sanfilippo, Alessia Gallucci, Silvia Inglese, Emanuele Tomasini, Anna Fontanella, Isabella Rebecchi, Stefania Fracchia, Paola Maria Rita Parisi, Federica Tartarone, Fabrizio Giunco, Carlo Abbate
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at investigating the sensitivity and specificity of the NeuroPsychological Examination (NPE), a systematic collection of cognitive signs and symptoms based on the observation of the patient's behavior during a clinical interview, in detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). METHOD: 475 participants, 208 suffering from MCI, 188 suffering from dementia and 79 subjective cognitive decline (SCD), have been assessed using NPE for the presence of signs and symptoms of cognitive impairment...
November 28, 2022: Neuropsychology
Thomas Liebe, Milos Dordevic, Jörn Kaufmann, Araks Avetisyan, Martin Skalej, Notger Müller
Dementia as one of the most prevalent diseases urges for a better understanding of the central mechanisms responsible for clinical symptoms, and necessitates improvement of actual diagnostic capabilities. The brainstem nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) is a promising target for early diagnosis because of its early structural alterations and its relationship to the functional disturbances in the patients. In this study, we applied our improved method of localisation-based LC resting-state fMRI to investigate the differences in central sensory signal processing when comparing functional connectivity (fc) of a patient group with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 28) and an age-matched healthy control group (n = 29)...
December 15, 2022: Human Brain Mapping
Ester Tapias-Merino, María Del Canto De Hoyos-Alonso, Israel Contador-Castillo, Emiliano Rodríguez-Sánchez, Teresa Sanz-Cuesta, Concepción María Becerro-Muñoz, Jesús Hernández-Gallego, Saturio Vega-Quiroga, Félix Bermejo-Pareja
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment and dementia have a high prevalence among the elderly and cause significant socio-economic impact. Any progress in their prevention can benefit millions of people. Current data indicate that cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors increase the risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. Using models to calculate CVR specific for the Spanish population can be useful for estimating the risk of cognitive deterioration since research on this topic is limited and predicting this risk is mainly based on outcomes in the Anglo-Saxon population...
2022: PloS One
Eleonora Giacopuzzi Grigoli, Federica Solca, Ilaria Milone, Edoardo Nicolò Aiello, Antonella Dubini, Antonia Ratti, Erminio Torresani, Barbara Poletti, Nicola Ticozzi, Emilio Ciusani, Vincenzo Silani, Federico Verde
BACKGROUND: The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum albumin quotient (Q-Alb) is a marker of the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) and possibly of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The latter is known to be altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on neuropathological and neuroimaging studies. Following investigations performed on clinically diagnosed cohorts, we aimed at comparing Q-Alb in cognitively impaired patients with neurochemical demonstration of AD pathophysiology and neurological disease controls (NDCs)...
November 28, 2022: Neurological Sciences
Alasdair M J MacLullich, Annmarie Hosie, Zoë Tieges, Daniel H J Davis
Delirium presents formidable challenges: it affects one in four of older hospitalised adults, greatly elevates the risk of multiple short- and long-term complications including dementia and causes significant distress. Delirium care remains generally poor. Yet, there are clear grounds for optimism; the last decade has seen impactful policy advances and a tripling of research output. Here, we highlight three linked areas which have strong potential to transform delirium practice and knowledge in the near term...
November 2, 2022: Age and Ageing
Michaela-Elena Friedrich, Gayan Perera, Lisa Leutgeb, David Haardt, Richard Frey, Robert Stewart, Christoph Mueller
INTRODUCTION: Delirium is an acute and fluctuating change in attention and cognition that increases the risk of functional decline, institutionalisation and death in hospitalised patients. After delirium, patients have a significantly higher risk of readmission to hospital. Our aim was to investigate factors associated with hospital readmission in people with delirium. METHODS: We carried out an observational retrospective cohort study using linked mental health care and hospitalisation records from South London...
November 28, 2022: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Aidong Yuan, Ralph A Nixon
Neurofilament and tau proteins are neuron-specific cytoskeletal proteins that are enriched in axons, regulated by many of the same protein kinases, interact physically, and are the principal constituents of neurofibrillary lesions in major adult-onset dementias. Both proteins share functions related to the modulation of stability and functions of the microtubule network in axons, axonal transport and scaffolding of organelles, long-term synaptic potentiation, and learning and memory. Expression of these proteins is regulated not only at the transcriptional level but also through posttranscriptional control of pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA stability, transport, localization, local translation and degradation...
October 29, 2022: Brain Research Bulletin
Bach Van Ho, Claar D van der Maarel-Wierink, Ralph de Vries, Frank Lobbezoo
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether, and if so, which oral health care services for community-dwelling older people with dementia are available. BACKGROUND: Oral health in people with dementia is poor compared with people without dementia. Although multiple oral health care interventions have previously been studied for older people living in nursing homes, little is known about interventions or services for community-dwelling older people with dementia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed in the databases Pubmed, Embase and CINAHL...
November 28, 2022: Gerodontology
Richard B Lipton, Lauren Podger, Walter F Stewart, David Gomez-Ulloa, Wilton I Rodriguez, M Chris Runken, Frederick B Barnes, Daniel Serrano
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive decline of cognition and daily function, leading to greater need for caregiver support. Clinical disease is segmented into a preclinical stage, mild cognitive impairment, and mild, moderate, and severe stages of Alzheimer's dementia. Though AD trials enroll participants at various stages of illness, treatment efficacy is often assessed using endpoints based on measures of outcomes that are held fixed across disease stages...
November 28, 2022: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Daiki Taomoto, Hideki Kanemoto, Yuto Satake, Kenji Yoshiyama, Masao Iwase, Mamoru Hashimoto, Manabu Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Delusional infestation is characterized by delusions of being infested with parasites, vermin, or small insects and is frequently accompanied by tactile and visual hallucinations. Herein, we report two cases of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) with delusional infestation. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1 was an 83-year-old man. At the age of 75, he began to show symptoms of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. At the age of 83, he began to complain of visual hallucinations of people and delusional infestation with tactile and visual hallucinations of insects, resulting in the use of insecticides for non-existent insects...
2022: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Lynn Haslam-Larmer, Leia Shum, Charlene H Chu, Kathy McGilton, Caitlin McArthur, Alastair J Flint, Shehroz Khan, Andrea Iaboni
INTRODUCTION: There has been growing interest in using real-time location systems (RTLS) in residential care settings. This technology has clinical applications for locating residents within a care unit and as a nurse call system, and can also be used to gather information about movement, location, and activity over time. RTLS thus provides health data to track markers of health and wellbeing and augment healthcare decisions. To date, no reviews have examined the potential use of RTLS data in caring for older adults with cognitive impairment living in a residential care setting...
2022: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Maria Clara Zanon Zotin, Dorothee Schoemaker, Nicolas Raposo, Valentina Perosa, Martin Bretzner, Lukas Sveikata, Qi Li, Susanne J van Veluw, Mitchell J Horn, Mark R Etherton, Andreas Charidimou, M Edip Gurol, Steven M Greenberg, Marco Duering, Antonio Carlos Dos Santos, Octavio M Pontes-Neto, Anand Viswanathan
BACKGROUND: Peak width of skeletonized mean diffusivity (PSMD) is a promising diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) marker that shows consistent and strong cognitive associations in the context of different cerebral small vessel diseases (cSVD). PURPOSE: Investigate whether PSMD (1) is higher in patients with Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA) than those with arteriolosclerosis; (2) can capture the anteroposterior distribution of CAA-related abnormalities; (3) shows similar neuroimaging and cognitive associations in comparison to other classical DTI markers, such as average mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA)...
2022: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ha Young Jang, Jung Mi Oh, In-Wha Kim
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia are disease that bring an increased global burden. However, the medicine developed to date remains limited. The purpose of this study is to predict drug repositioning candidates using a computational method that integrates gene expression profiles on Alzheimer's disease and compound-induced changes in gene expression levels. METHODS: Gene expression data on Alzheimer's disease were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and we conducted a meta-analysis of their gene expression levels...
2022: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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