Ashley R Shaw, Eric D Vidoni, Mickeal N Key, Brandon A Yates, Roland Thorpe
Older Black men are underrepresented in research despite being disproportionately affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors related to AD compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Although dietary interventions have shown promise to reduce modifiable CV risk factors related to AD, Black Americans have lower adherence likely due to lack of cultural considerations. Using a noninterventional convergent parallel mixed-methods approach, this study examined the cultural contexts that inform perceptions of dietary interventions among older Midwestern Black men...
2024: American Journal of Men's Health
Natacha M De Genna, Erin Jacobsen, Mary Ganguli
OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of population-level data on marijuana use and mental health and functioning in older adults. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data (n = 910) from a well-characterized cohort, the Monongahela-Youghiogheny Healthy Aging Team (MYHAT) study. MYHAT is an age-stratified random sample of the population age 65 years and older from a small-town in the USA. Half the sample was female and half were over 75 (Mean age = 77)...
April 2024: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Seung-Woo Ryoo, Baek-Yong Choi, Seok-Yoon Son, Kun-Hee Oh, Jin-Young Min, Kyoung-Bok Min
Many studies suggest a significant association between individual essential trace elements (ETEs) and cognitive impairment in older adults, but evidence of the synchronized effect of multiple ETEs on cognitive function is lacking. We investigated the association between multiple ETEs, cognitive impairment with no dementia (CIND), and executive function in older Korean adults, using the Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) model. Three hundred and thirty-six older adults were included as the study population and classified as the CIND and control groups...
March 29, 2024: Nutrients
Maki Shirobe, Ayako Edahiro, Keiko Motokawa, Shiho Morishita, Yoshiko Motohashi, Chiaki Matsubara, Masanori Iwasaki, Yutaka Watanabe, Hirohiko Hirano
Oral function evaluation in older adults with dementia is important for determining appropriate and practical dietary support plans; however, it can be challenging due to their difficulties in comprehending instructions and cooperating during assessments. The feasibility of oral function evaluation has not been well studied. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the feasibility of oral function evaluation in older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD) according to Functional Assessment Staging of Alzheimer's Disease (FAST) stages...
March 28, 2024: Nutrients
Irina Alafuzoff, Sylwia Libard
Neuropathological assessment was conducted on 1630 subjects, representing 5% of all the deceased that had been sent to the morgue of Uppsala University Hospital during a 15-year-long period. Among the 1630 subjects, 1610 were ≥41 years of age (range 41 to 102 years). Overall, hyperphosphorylated (HP) τ was observed in the brains of 98% of the 1610 subjects, and amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in the brains of 64%. The most common alteration observed was Alzheimer disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) (56%), followed by primary age-related tauopathy (PART) in 26% of the subjects...
April 5, 2024: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ching-Chi Hsu, Shiow-Ing Wang, Hong-Chun Lin, Eric S Lin, Fan-Pei Yang, Ching-Mao Chang, James Cheng-Chung Wei
The delineation of biomarkers and neuropsychiatric symptoms across normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia stages holds significant promise for early diagnosis and intervention strategies. This research investigates the association of neuropsychiatric symptoms, evaluated via the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (Amyloid-β42, P-tau, T-tau) across a spectrum of cognitive states to enhance diagnostic accuracy and treatment approaches. Drawing from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set Version 3, comprising 977 individuals with normal cognition, 270 with MCI, and 649 with dementia...
March 31, 2024: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jeffrey Fessel
The goal of the treatment for Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is the cure of dementia. A literature review revealed 18 major elements causing AD and 29 separate medications that address them. For any individual with AD, one is unlikely to discern which major causal elements produced dementia. Thus, for personalized, precision medicine, all causal elements must be treated so that each individual patient will have her or his causal elements addressed. Twenty-nine drugs cannot concomitantly be administered, so triple combinations of drugs taken from that list are suggested, and each triple combination can be administered sequentially, in any order...
March 31, 2024: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yizhou Hu, Feng Zhang, Milos Ikonomovic, Tuo Yang
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) represents a broad spectrum of cognitive decline secondary to cerebral vascular aging and injury. It is the second most common type of dementia, and the prevalence continues to increase. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is enriched in the cerebral vasculature and has diverse roles in metabolic balance, mitochondrial stabilization, redox balance, and anti-inflammation. In this review, we first briefly introduce cerebrovascular aging in VCID and the NRF2 pathway...
March 29, 2024: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jinyi Zhang, Po Niu, Mingjie Li, Yuan Wang, Yao Ma, Pan Wang
The fruits of Cornus officinalis are used not only as a popular health food to tonify the liver and kidney, but also as staple materials to treat dementia and other age-related diseases. The pharmacological function of C. officinalis fruits with or without seeds is controversial for treating some symptoms in a few herbal prescriptions. However, the related metabolite and pharmacological information between its pericarps and seeds are largely deficient. Here, comparative metabolomics analysis between C. officinalis pericarps and seeds were conducted using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, and therapeutic effects were also evaluated using several in vitro bioactivity arrays (antioxidant activity, α-glucosidase and cholinesterase inhibitory activities, and cell inhibitory properties)...
March 26, 2024: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
María Jiménez-Palomares, Elisa María Garrido-Ardila, Elena Chávez-Bravo, Silvia Teresa Torres-Piles, Blanca González-Sánchez, María Jesús Rodríguez-Mansilla, Álvaro De Toro-García, Juan Rodríguez-Mansilla
Background/Objective : Alzheimer's disease is a condition that can cause memory, thinking, and behaviour impairments. This type of dementia affects approximately 50 million people globally. Currently, there is no remedy for this disease, but there are different treatment approaches, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological, that try to alleviate the symptoms. The remarkable fact about Alzheimer's response to music is that musical abilities can be preserved even though language could be lost. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the benefits of music therapy on cognitive impairments in older adults with Alzheimer's disease...
April 1, 2024: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Thomas Nijdam, Tim Schiepers, Duco Laane, Henk Jan Schuijt, Detlef van der Velde, Diederik Smeeing
(1) Background: Hip fracture patients with very limited life expectancy can opt for non-operative management (NOM) within a palliative care context. The implementation of NOM in the palliative context may affect the mortality of the operatively treated population. This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine whether the operatively treated geriatric hip fracture population would have a lower in-hospital mortality rate and fewer postoperative complications after the introduction of NOM within a palliative care context for patients with very limited life expectancy...
March 29, 2024: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Maria Albanese, Francesca Pescini, Chiara Di Bonaventura, Luigi Francesco Iannone, Silvia Bianchi, Anna Poggesi, Mario Bengala, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Francesco De Cesaris
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common monogenic form of cerebral small vessel disease, caused by a mutation in the NOTCH3 gene on chromosome 19. The main clinical features include migraine (often with aura), early onset, recurrent subcortical ischemic strokes, mood disturbances, and cognitive impairment, frequently leading to dementia and disability with a reduction in life expectancy. Cerebral chronic global hypoperfusion, due to impaired cerebrovascular reactivity, seems to play a primary role in CADASIL...
March 24, 2024: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Mariana Vega-Mendoza, Robbie S Norval, Brittany Blankinship, Thomas H Bak
BACKGROUND: A body of research from around the world has reported positive effects of bilingualism on cognitive ageing and dementia. However, little is known about whether foreign language learning could be applied as an intervention for people already living with dementia. Yet, before it is possible to determine the efficacy of language courses as an intervention for people living with dementia (PLWD), it is necessary to establish whether such an intervention is feasible. Our study explored this possibility...
March 25, 2024: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Zsolt Huszár, Marie Anne Engh, Márk Pavlekovics, Tomoya Sato, Yalea Steenkamp, Bernard Hanseeuw, Tamás Terebessy, Zsolt Molnár, Péter Hegyi, Gábor Csukly
BACKGROUND: Measurement of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels offers the potential for early detection of neurocognitive impairment. Still, the probability of developing a clinical syndrome in the presence of these protein changes (A+ and T+) remains unclear. By performing a systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia in the non-demented population with A+ and A- alone and in combination with T+ and T- as confirmed by PET or cerebrospinal fluid examination...
April 12, 2024: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Robert Twycross
It seems probable that some form of medically-assisted dying will become legal in England and Wales in the foreseeable future. Assisted dying Bills are at various stages of preparation in surrounding jurisdictions (Scotland, Republic of Ireland, Isle of Man, Jersey), and activists campaign unceasingly for a change in the law in England and Wales. There is generally uncritical supportive media coverage, and individual autonomy is seen as the unassailable trump card: 'my life, my death'.However, devising a law which is 'fit for purpose' is not an easy matter...
April 13, 2024: BMC Palliative Care
Bria Browne, Khalid Ali, Elizabeth Ford, Naji Tabet
INTRODUCTION: Over 50% of hospitalised older people with dementia have multimorbidity, and are at an increased risk of hospital readmissions within 30 days of their discharge. Between 20-40% of these readmissions may be preventable. Current research focuses on the physical causes of hospital readmissions. However, older people with dementia have additional psychosocial factors that are likely to increase their risk of readmissions. This narrative review aimed to identify psychosocial determinants of hospital readmissions, within the context of known physical factors...
April 12, 2024: BMC Geriatrics
B R McDonald, S Vogrin, C M Said
BACKGROUND: Outcomes following proximal humeral fracture (PHF) may be impacted by a range of clinical, fracture and premorbid factors. The aim of this study was to examine factors impacting hospital admission; length of stay (LOS) and new discharge destination for patients presenting to hospital with PHF. METHODS: Retrospective audit conducted at a tertiary health service. Data was collected from adult patients presenting to hospital with a PHF over a 54-month period...
April 12, 2024: BMC Geriatrics
Victoria Light, Sherri Lee Jones, Elham Rahme, Katerine Rousseau, Sterre de Boer, Lisa Vermunt, Mahdie Soltaninejad, Charlotte Teunissen, Yolande Pijnenburg, Simon Ducharme, For Signature Consortium
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) overlap with primary psychiatric disorders (PPD) making diagnosis challenging. Serum neurofilament light (sNfL) is a candidate biomarker to distinguish bvFTD from PPD, but large-scale studies in PPD are lacking. OBJECTIVE: Determine factors that influence sNfL from a large database of PPD patients, and test its diagnostic accuracy. DESIGN, SETTINGS, SUBJECTS, MEASUREMENTS: Clinical data of people aged 40-81 were obtained from healthy subjects (n = 69), and patients with PPD (n = 848) or bvFTD (n = 82)...
March 24, 2024: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Brandon Ebright, Marlon V Duro, Kai Chen, Stan Louie, Hussein N Yassine
Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have important roles in human nutrition and brain health by promoting neuronal functions, maintaining inflammatory homeostasis, and providing structural integrity. As Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology progresses, DHA metabolism in the brain becomes dysregulated, the timing and extent of which may be influenced by the apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) allele. Here, we discuss how maintaining adequate DHA intake early in life may slow the progression to AD dementia in cognitively normal individuals with APOE4, how recent advances in DHA brain imaging could offer insights leading to more personalized preventive strategies, and how alternative strategies targeting PUFA metabolism pathways may be more effective in mitigating disease progression in patients with existing AD dementia...
April 11, 2024: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
C Sellier, P Corcia, P Vourc'h, L Dupuis
The major gene underlying monogenic forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) is C9ORF72. The causative mutation in C9ORF72 is an abnormal hexanucleotide (G4C2) repeat expansion (HRE) located in the first intron of the gene. The aim of this review is to propose a comprehensive update on recent developments on clinical, biological and therapeutics aspects related to C9ORF72 in order to highlight the current understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations, and also on biological machinery leading to neuronal death...
April 11, 2024: Revue Neurologique
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