Saori Nakahara, Miyuki Takasaki, Sayaka Abe, Chisa Kakitani, Shinta Nishioka, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Keisuke Maeda
Aggressive nutrition therapy is essential to improve nutrition and function in patients with malnutrition and sarcopenia. Malnutrition and sarcopenia negatively affect functional recovery and activities of daily living. Nutrition improvement is associated with better functional recovery. Target energy intake in aggressive nutrition therapy is defined as total energy expenditure (TEE) plus the amount of energy accumulated. The amount of energy accumulation per 1 kg of body weight is generally 7500 kcal. If the goal is to gain 1 kg of weight over 30 d, TEE + 250 kcal is the target daily energy intake...
December 10, 2020: Nutrition
Alberto Benussi, Mario Grassi, Fernando Palluzzi, Valentina Cantoni, Maria Sofia Cotelli, Enrico Premi, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Federico Ranieri, Gabriella Musumeci, Camillo Marra, Paolo Manganotti, Raffaele Nardone, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Giacomo Koch, Barbara Borroni
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of a Random Forest (RF) classifier on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) measures in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). METHODS: We applied a RF classifier on TMS measures obtained from a multicenter cohort of patients with MCI, including MCI-Alzheimer's Disease (MCI-AD), MCI-frontotemporal dementia (MCI-FTD), MCI-dementia with Lewy bodies (MCI-DLB), and healthy controls (HC). All patients underwent TMS assessment at recruitment (index test), with application of reference clinical criteria, to predict different neurodegenerative disorders...
January 13, 2021: Brain Stimulation
Nikolay Solovyev, Ahmed H El-Khatib, Marta Costas-Rodríguez, Karima Schwab, Elizabeth Griffin, Andrea Raab, Bettina Platt, Franz Theuring, Jochen Vogl, Frank Vanhaecke
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation of tau and amyloid-beta in the brain, and recent evidence suggests a correlation between associated protein aggregates and trace elements, such as copper, iron and zinc. In AD, distorted brain redox homeostasis and complexation by amyloid-beta and hyperphosphorylated tau may alter the isotopic composition of essential mineral elements. Therefore, high-precision isotopic analysis may reveal changes in the homeostasis of these elements. We used inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)-based techniques to determine the total Cu, Fe and Zn contents in the brain, as well as their isotopic compositions in both mouse brain and serum...
January 13, 2021: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shilpa Kumari, Rahul Deshmukh
Alzheimer's disease is a multifactorial disorder characterized by extracellular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and intracellular accumulations of neurofibrillary tangles. Numerous drug targets have been explored for therapeutic efficacy but failed to deliver successful treatments clinically. However, over the years our understanding of the disease pathophysiology increased significantly. Many of the novel targets which can cure or modify disease pathology are being explored preclinically as well as clinically...
January 13, 2021: European Journal of Pharmacology
Janet L MacNeil-Vroomen, Jenny T van der Steen, Rebecca Holman, Joan K Monin, Bianca M Buurman
OBJECTIVES: Dying in a hospital is highly stressful for older adults and families. Persons with dementia who are hospitalized are particularly vulnerable to negative outcomes. The objective of this study is to fill an evidence gap on whether the 2015 Dutch long-term care reforms were effective in increasing deaths at home while avoiding increases in hospital deaths for the total population aged ≥65 years and by dementia status. DESIGN: We used annual cross-sectional, nationally representative data from 2012 to 2017...
January 13, 2021: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Jinyu Liu
OBJECTIVES: Though many studies have explored differences between spouses and adult children in dementia care, empirical evidence is lacking on racial- and ethnic-minority populations. To fill this research gap, this study examined care tasks, caregiver burden, and depressive symptoms of Chinese spouse and adult-child caregivers in dementia care. Guided by the stress process model, this study asked 3 questions: Do spouse and adult-child caregivers take up different care tasks and experience different levels of caregiver burden and depressive symptoms? Does gender moderate the differences between spouse and adult-child caregivers? Whether care tasks and burden mediate the association between being a spouse/adult-child caregiver and depressive symptoms? SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected from a questionnaire-based survey of Chinese Americans who provided care for their family members with dementia in New York City...
January 13, 2021: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Montserrat Barceló, Olga Herminia Torres, Jordi Mascaró, Jordi Casademont
The leading causes of mortality in our study were pneumonia, diseases of the circulatory system, and dementias. In patients with hip fractures, the emphasis should be placed not only on measures to prevent falls and osteoporosis, but also on preventing functional decline and pneumonia. PURPOSE: To describe the specific causes of death in patients who died up to 2 years after sustaining a hip fracture, how many of those deaths were directly related to the hip fracture, and the risk factors for mortality...
January 16, 2021: Archives of Osteoporosis
Anna Siegert, Marija Rankovic, Filippo Favretto, Tina Ukmar-Godec, Timo Strohäker, Stefan Becker, Markus Zweckstetter
In Parkinson's disease with dementia, up to 50 % of patients develop a high number of tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles. Tau-based pathologies may thus act synergistically with the α-synuclein pathology to confer a worse prognosis. A better understanding of the relationship between the two distinct pathologies is therefore required. Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of proteins has recently been shown to be important for protein aggregation involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, whereas tau phase separation has been linked to Alzheimer's disease...
January 15, 2021: Protein Science
Hugh G Pemberton, Olivia Goodkin, Ferran Prados, Ravi K Das, Sjoerd B Vos, James Moggridge, William Coath, Elizabeth Gordon, Ryan Barrett, Anne Schmitt, Hefina Whiteley-Jones, Christian Burd, Mike P Wattjes, Sven Haller, Meike W Vernooij, Lorna Harper, Nick C Fox, Ross W Paterson, Jonathan M Schott, Sotirios Bisdas, Mark White, Sebastien Ourselin, John S Thornton, Tarek A Yousry, M Jorge Cardoso, Frederik Barkhof
OBJECTIVES: We examined whether providing a quantitative report (QReport) of regional brain volumes improves radiologists' accuracy and confidence in detecting volume loss, and in differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), compared with visual assessment alone. METHODS: Our forced-choice multi-rater clinical accuracy study used MRI from 16 AD patients, 14 FTD patients, and 15 healthy controls; age range 52-81. Our QReport was presented to raters with regional grey matter volumes plotted as percentiles against data from a normative population (n = 461)...
January 15, 2021: European Radiology
Hyunmin Kim, Asos Mahmood, Joy V Goldsmith, HyukJae Chang, Satish Kedia, Cyril F Chang
Informal caregivers provide unpaid care to their physically or mentally ill loved ones and play a critical role in the healthcare delivery. eHealth tools, including the broadband internet, can facilitate care processes and impact the caregiving burden through seeking health information and health communication. This study examines the predictors of access to broadband internet and the factors associated with health information seeking and health communication among informal caregivers with broadband internet...
January 15, 2021: Journal of Medical Systems
Bridget A Tripp, Simon T Dillon, Min Yuan, John M Asara, Sarinnapha M Vasunilashorn, Tamara G Fong, Eran D Metzger, Sharon K Inouye, Zhongcong Xie, Long H Ngo, Edward R Marcantonio, Towia A Libermann, Hasan H Otu
Postoperative delirium is the most common complication among older adults undergoing major surgery. The pathophysiology of delirium is poorly understood, and no blood-based, predictive markers are available. We characterized the plasma metabolome of 52 delirium cases and 52 matched controls from the Successful Aging after Elective Surgery (SAGES) cohort (N = 560) of patients ≥ 70 years old without dementia undergoing scheduled major non-cardiac surgery. We applied targeted mass spectrometry with internal standards and pooled controls using a nested matched case-control study preoperatively (PREOP) and on postoperative day 2 (POD2) to identify potential delirium risk and disease markers...
January 15, 2021: Scientific Reports
Lili Chen, Xinhua Xu, Huizhen Cao, Hong Li
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterised by cognitive impairment. Non-pharmacological treatments such as diet therapy have been widely investigated in studies on AD. Given the synergistic effects of nutrients present in foods, considering overall dietary composition rather than focusing on a single nutrient may be more useful for evaluating the relationship between diet and AD cognition. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of different dietary interventions (eg, ketogenic and Mediterranean diets) on cognitive function in patients with AD in a systematic review and pairwise and network meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials or clinical trials...
January 15, 2021: BMJ Open
Emma L van der Ende, Jazmyne L Jackson, Adrianna White, Harro Seelaar, Marka van Blitterswijk, John C Van Swieten
Since the discovery of the C9orf72 repeat expansion as the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, it has increasingly been associated with a wider spectrum of phenotypes, including other types of dementia, movement disorders, psychiatric symptoms and slowly progressive FTD. Prompt recognition of patients with C9orf72 -associated diseases is essential in light of upcoming clinical trials. The striking clinical heterogeneity associated with C9orf72 repeat expansions remains largely unexplained...
January 15, 2021: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Jessica L Panman, Vikram Venkatraghavan, Emma L van der Ende, Rebecca M E Steketee, Lize C Jiskoot, Jackie M Poos, Elise G P Dopper, Lieke H H Meeter, Laura Donker Kaat, Serge A R B Rombouts, Meike W Vernooij, Anneke J A Kievit, Enrico Premi, Maura Cosseddu, Elisa Bonomi, Jaume Olives, Jonathan D Rohrer, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Barbara Borroni, Esther E Bron, John C Van Swieten, Janne M Papma, Stefan Klein
OBJECTIVE: Progranulin-related frontotemporal dementia (FTD- GRN ) is a fast progressive disease. Modelling the cascade of multimodal biomarker changes aids in understanding the aetiology of this disease and enables monitoring of individual mutation carriers. In this cross-sectional study, we estimated the temporal cascade of biomarker changes for FTD- GRN , in a data-driven way. METHODS: We included 56 presymptomatic and 35 symptomatic GRN mutation carriers, and 35 healthy non-carriers...
January 15, 2021: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Lewis H Kuller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2020: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Sonia Podvin, Alexander Jones, Qing Liu, Brent Aulston, Linnea Ransom, Janneca Ames, Gloria Shen, Christopher B Lietz, Zhenze Jiang, Anthony J O'Donoghue, Charisse Winston, Tsuneya Ikezu, Robert A Rissman, Shauna Yuan, Vivian Hook
Accumulation and propagation of hyperphosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) is a common neuropathological hallmark associated with neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), and related tauopathies. Extracellular vesicles, specifically exosomes, have recently been demonstrated to participate in mediating Tau propagation in brain. Exosomes produced by human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons expressing mutant Tau (mTau), containing the P301L and V337M Tau mutations of FTDP-17, possess the ability to propagate p-Tau pathology after injection into mouse brain...
June 2020: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Aja Louise Murray, Marlena Vollmer, Ian J Deary, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Tom Booth
BACKGROUND: Whether in the context of monitoring disease progression or in assessing the effects of interventions, a major challenge in dementia research is determining when an individual has undergone meaningful change in symptoms and other relevant outcomes such as cognitive test performance. The challenge lies in differentiating genuine improvement or deterioration from change in scores due to random and systematic error. BODY: In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of available methods for assessing individual-level change in the context of key challenges, including imperfect and differential reliability of scores, and practice effects...
January 15, 2021: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Ernesto Fedele, Roberta Ricciarelli
Cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate, better known as cyclic-GMP or cGMP, is a classical second messenger involved in a variety of intracellular pathways ultimately controlling different physiological functions. The family of guanylyl cyclases that includes soluble and particulate enzymes, each of which comprises several isoforms with different mechanisms of activation, synthesizes cGMP. cGMP signaling is mainly executed by the activation of protein kinase G and cyclic nucleotide gated channels, whereas it is terminated by its hydrolysis to GMP operated by both specific and dual-substrate phosphodiesterases...
January 13, 2021: Pharmaceuticals
Giovanni Ribaudo, Maurizio Memo, Alessandra Gianoncelli
As life expectancy increases, dementia affects a growing number of people worldwide. Besides current treatments, phosphodiesterase 9 (PDE9) represents an alternative target for developing innovative small molecules to contrast neurodegeneration. PDE inhibition promotes neurotransmitter release, amelioration of microvascular dysfunction, and neuronal plasticity. This review will provide an update on natural and nature-inspired PDE9 inhibitors, with a focus on the structural features of PDE9 that encourage the development of isoform-selective ligands...
January 13, 2021: Pharmaceuticals
Yuriko Nakaoku, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Shinjiro Tominari, Takeo Nakayama
Preventing dementia in elderly individuals is an important public health challenge. While early identification and modification of predictors are crucial, predictors of dementia based on routinely collected healthcare data are not fully understood. We aimed to examine potential predictors of dementia diagnosis using routinely collected claims data. In this retrospective cohort study, claims data from fiscal years 2012 (baseline) and 2016 (follow-up), recorded in an administrative claims database of the medical care system for the elderly (75 years or older) in Niigata prefecture, Japan, were used...
January 13, 2021: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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