Yeon-Hee Baek, Hye-Jun Kim, Ji-Hwan Bae, Hyesung Lee, In-Sun Oh, Woo Jung Kim, Ju-Young Shin
OBJECTIVE: The association between benzodiazepine use and the risk of cognitive impairment or dementia has been controversial. Our study aims to detect this association through a case/non-case method using the Korea Institute of Drug Safety & Risk Management-Korea adverse event reporting system database (KIDS-KD) between 2007 and 2016. METHODS: Cases were adverse event (AE)-pairs with suspected cognitive impairment or dementia. 10 non-cases were matched to each case on age and sex...
May 27, 2020: Psychiatry Investigation
Shunsuke Koga, Shanu F Roemer, Philip W Tipton, Phillip A Low, Keith A Josephs, Dennis W Dickson
BACKGROUND: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by a combination of dysautonomia, parkinsonism, and cerebellar ataxia. Other disorders can mimic MSA, but it is unknown whether cerebrovascular pathology, so-called "vascular parkinsonism," can mimic MSA. This study aimed to determine the clinicopathological features and red flags for vascular parkinsonism masquerading as MSA. METHODS: Using a brain bank database, we screened 270 patients with an antemortem diagnosis of MSA, who did not have pathologic evidence of MSA, but rather cerebrovascular pathology, including leukoencephalopathy, lacunar infarcts, and microinfarcts...
May 16, 2020: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Hui Wang, Jingyun Yang, Julie A Schneider, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett, Hong-Yu Zhang
Genome-wide association studies have identified many loci associated with Alzheimer's dementia. However, these variants only explain part of the heritability of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As genetic epistasis can be a major contributor to the "missing heritability" of AD, we conducted genome-wide epistasis screening for AD pathologies in 2 independent cohorts. First, we performed a genome-wide epistasis study of AD-related brain pathologies (Nmax  = 1318) in ROS/MAP. Candidate interactions were validated using cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of AD in ADNI (Nmax  = 1128)...
April 29, 2020: Neurobiology of Aging
Raffaella Franciotti, Andrea Pilotto, Davide V Moretti, Nicola Walter Falasca, Dario Arnaldi, John-Paul Taylor, Flavio Nobili, Milica Kramberger, Sara Garcia Ptacek, Alessandro Padovani, Dag Aarlsand, Marco Onofrj, Laura Bonanni
Electroencephalography (EEG) slowing with prealpha dominant frequency (DF) in posterior derivations is a biomarker for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) diagnosis, in contrast with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, an intrasubject re-evaluation of the original data, which contributed to the identification of EEG DLB biomarker, showed that DF was slower in anterior than posterior derivations. We suppose this anterior-posterior gradient of DF slowing could arise in DLB from a thalamocortical dysrhythmia, differently involving the anterior and posterior cortical areas, and correlating with cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination)...
April 29, 2020: Neurobiology of Aging
Sumeyya Akyol, Ali Yilmaz, Kyung Joon Oh, Zafer Ugur, Buket Aydas, Bernadette McGuinness, Peter Passmore, Patrick G Kehoe, Michael Maddens, Brian D Green, Stewart F Graham
Disruptions of brain metabolism are considered integral to the pathogenesis of dementia, but thus far little is known of how dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) impacts the brain metabolome. DLB is less well known than other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease which is perhaps why it is under-investigated. This exploratory study aimed to address current knowledge gaps in DLB research and search for potentially targetable biochemical pathways for therapeutics. It also aimed to better understand metabolic similarities and differences with other dementias...
May 22, 2020: Brain Research
M Iqbal Hossain, Joshua M Marcus, Jun Hee Lee, Patrick L Garcia, VinodKumar Singh, John J Shacka, Jianhua Zhang, Toby I Gropen, Charles N Falany, Shaida A Andrabi
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. The pathophysiological mechanisms associated with stroke are very complex and not fully understood. Lysosomal function has a vital physiological function in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In neurons, CTSD (cathepsin D) is an essential protease involved in the regulation of proteolytic activity of the lysosomes. Loss of CTSD leads to lysosomal dysfunction and accumulation of different cellular proteins implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. In cerebral ischemia, the role of CTSD and lysosomal function is not clearly defined...
May 25, 2020: Autophagy
Rianne A A de Heus, Daan L K de Jong, Anne Rijpma, Brian A Lawlor, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Jurgen A H R Claassen
BACKGROUND: Impaired recovery of blood pressure (BP) after standing has been shown to be related to cognitive function and mortality in people without dementia, but its role in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the orthostatic BP response with cognitive decline and mortality in AD. METHODS: In this post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial (Nilvad), we measured the beat-to-beat response of BP upon active standing in mild-to-moderate AD...
May 25, 2020: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Sato Ashida, Erin L Robinson, Kristine Williams, Emily E Hejna, Lena E Thompson
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the psychosocial experiences in community-based dementia caregiving by assessing the characteristics of social interactions between family caregivers and community-based service providers and associated psychological responses. METHODS: Two independent groups of participants (family caregivers and community-based service providers) completed a one-time survey to report their social interactions and psychological states. A linear regression model was fit for each outcome (satisfaction, 10-item CES-D) while controlling for significant relevant covariates...
May 25, 2020: Clinical Gerontologist
Elyssa A Scharaga, Annie Chang, Joseph F Kulas
Objective : Neuropsychological evaluations in a geriatric population have an assortment of challenges due to increased risk in the population for chronic/acute medical conditions, varied psychiatric disorders, and chronic negative lifestyle behaviors, all which impact one's cognitive functioning. One relatively new challenge is conducting cognitive evaluations within an elderly transgender population. There is a considerable lack of specific normative data in neuropsychological evaluations for transgender individuals due to the prevalence of binary gender categorization in current scoring protocols...
May 25, 2020: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Trang Nguyen, Sue Levkoff
In this article, we explore the psychological process through which Vietnamese family caregivers adjust to their role as primary caregivers for their relatives with dementia. The study adopted a constructivist grounded theory approach to collect data with 30 face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with 20 self-identified primary caregivers of older adults with dementia in Vietnam. The core adjustment process, consisting of four stages ( Experience, Acknowledgment, Experiment, and Acceptance [ EAEA ]), to caregiving role emerged from the data...
May 25, 2020: Qualitative Health Research
Mackenzie T Jones, Martin T Strassnig, Philip D Harvey
INTRODUCTION: While antipsychotics have been generally successful in treating psychosis in schizophrenia, there is a major treatment gap for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. Given that these aspects of the disease contribute to poor functional outcomes independently of positive symptoms, treatments would have profound implications for quality of life. The 5-HT2A - receptor has been considered a potential target for interventions aimed at negative and cognitive symptoms and multiple antagonists and inverse agonists of this receptor have been tested...
May 23, 2020: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Chirag Patel, Sonal Pande, Sanjeev Acharya
Curcumin, a major component of Indian saffron through clinical studies, revealed its neuroprotective effect in neurodegenerative diseases. However, it has not been utilized alone orally due to its low bioavailability. There are certain strategies to overcome the drawbacks such as poor absorption and low aqueous solubility. Many strategies are utilized to increase the systemic availability of curcumin. Among them, the steady intestinal and liver metabolism of curcumin by a curcumin adjuvant (enzyme inhibitor/inducer) is an important and less engrossed strategy for improving the overall systemic bioavailability of curcumin...
May 25, 2020: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Georgia Peakman, Nishshanka Karunatilake, Mathieu Seynaeve, Gayan Perera, Dag Aarsland, Robert Stewart, Christoph Mueller
OBJECTIVES: Depression can be a prodromal feature or a risk factor for dementia. We aimed to investigate which clinical factors in patients with late-life depression are associated with a higher risk of developing dementia and a more rapid conversion. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) secondary mental healthcare services. PARTICIPANTS: The SLaM Clinical Record Interactive Search was used to retrieve anonymised data on 3659 patients aged 65 years or older who had received a diagnosis of depression in mental health services and had been followed up for at least 3 months...
May 24, 2020: BMJ Open
S C Smith, A A J Hendriks, S J Cano, N Black
BACKGROUND: The growing move towards personalised health and social care systems means that every effort needs to be made to generate patient-reported outcome data. However, the deteriorating nature of dementia can make it difficult for people with dementia to complete self-reported questionnaires and it is often necessary to rely on a family member (proxy) to report on their behalf. There is little evidence to guide how the difference between self- and proxy-reports of health reported quality of life (HRQL) in dementia can be interpreted...
May 24, 2020: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Natasha Yasmin, Hayley S Keeble, Gerard A Riley
Objective Relationship continuity/discontinuity refers to whether a spouse/partner experiences their current relationship with someone with an acquired brain injury (ABI) as a continuation of their loving pre-injury relationship or as radically changed. The aim of this study was to adapt a questionnaire measure of continuity/discontinuity from dementia research for use in an ABI context and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this adaptation. Method The questionnaire was adapted in response to feedback from a focus group of ABI caregivers...
May 23, 2020: Brain Injury
Wen-Dan Yang, Wei-Guo Dong
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary degeneration, is the most common type of dementia and has no incurable therapies at the moment. Electroacupuncture (EA) therapy has been widely used in clinical treatment of AD, and has attained approving effects. This article reviews the development of researches on the mechanisms of EA underlying improving AD by diminishing β amyloid protein (Aβ) neurotoxicity, from 1) up-regulating hippocampal cellular autophagy, 2) improving cerebral energy metabolism by activating oxidation stress-related factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 alpha and sirtuin 1 in the hippocampus and frontal cerebral cortex, 3) relieving inflammatory reaction by lowering expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and high-mobility group box 1 and increasing expression of Interleukin 10, and 4) promoting degradation of Aβ1-42 by down-regulating expression of insulin degeneration enzyme, lipoprotein, transthyretin, apolipoprotein and α2 mcroglobulin...
May 25, 2020: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Robert Haussmann, Fabienne Nilles, Cathrin Sauer, Amrei F E von Lieres Und Wilkau, Katharina L Donix, Markus Donix
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2020: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Juárez-Cedillo Teresa, Calzada Fernado, Martínez-Rodríguez Nancy, Vargas-Alarcón Gilberto, Cruz-Rocha Alberto, Robles-Ramirez Roberto
Because of the importance of cholesterol metabolism in the physiopathogenesis of dementia, and knowing the function of ATP-binding cassette A1 transporter (ABCA1) as a cholesterol flow pump at the cellular and cerebral level, it has been noted that the ABCA1 gene may be a good candidate for disease study. In order to evaluate the relationship between ABCA1 genetic variants and the risk of Alzheimer's disease and other dementia in Mexican individuals, we examined three ABCA1 polymorphisms located in the exonic region (rs2230808, rs2066718, rs2230806) and two in the promoter region (rs1800977, rs2422493) in a group of 557 normal controls and 221 cases of dementia...
May 23, 2020: Metabolic Brain Disease
Alma Osmanovic, Maylin Widjaja, Alisa Förster, Julia Weder, Mike P Wattjes, Inken Lange, Anastasia Sarikidi, Bernd Auber, Peter Raab, Anne Christians, Matthias Preller, Susanne Petri, Ruthild G Weber
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are motor neuron diseases sharing clinical, pathological, and genetic similarities. While biallelic SPG7 mutations are known to cause recessively inherited HSP, heterozygous SPG7 mutations have repeatedly been identified in HSP and recently also in ALS cases. However, the frequency and clinical impact of rare SPG7 variants have not been studied in a larger ALS cohort. Here, whole-exome (WES) or targeted SPG7 sequencing was done in a cohort of 214 European ALS patients...
May 23, 2020: Journal of Neurology
Gill Windle, Maria Caulfield, Bob Woods, Karlijn Joling
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Arts activities can improve social connectedness and foster reciprocity between people living with dementia and their caregivers. The extent to which the arts can help shape attitudes towards dementia remains unclear. This paper explores the impact of a 12-week visual arts program "Dementia and Imagination" on the attitudes of family and professional caregivers through a mixed-methods longitudinal investigation, underpinned by a conceptual framework of the arts in dementia care...
May 24, 2020: Gerontologist
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