keyword
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34315377/the-safety-and-efficacy-of-botanicals-with-nootropic-effects
#1
Amy L Roe, Arvind Venkataraman
Recent estimates for the global brain health supplement category, i.e. nootropic market size, will grow to nearly $5.8 billion by 2023. Overall, nearly one-quarter (23%) of adults currently take a supplement to maintain or improve brain health or delay and reverse dementia. Not surprisingly, the use of such supplements increases with age - more than one-third of the oldest generation (ages 74 and older) takes a supplement for brain health. This widespread use is being driven by a strong desire both in the younger and older generations to enhance cognitive performance and achieve healthy aging...
July 26, 2021: Current Neuropharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34311438/episomal-vector-reprogramming-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-natural-killer-cells-to-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-line-musii013-a
#2
Phatchanat Klaihmon, Sudjit Luanpitpong, Chanchao Lorthongpanich, Chuti Laowtammathron, Supaporn Waeteekul, Papussorn Terbto, Surapol Issaragrisil
Natural killer (NK) cells were isolated from human umbilical cord blood from a healthy newborn and reprogrammed by episomal vectors carrying reprograming factors L-MYC, LIN28, OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, EBNA-1, and shRNA against p53 delivered using nucleofection. The obtained MUSIi013-A human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line highly expressed pluripotency markers, had the capacity to differentiate into derivatives of the three germ layers, while retained a normal karyotype. This cell line may be a useful tool to study epigenic memory that may predispose hiPSCs to enhanced NK differentiation...
July 21, 2021: Stem Cell Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34303848/whole-brain-functional-connectivity-dynamics-associated-with-electroconvulsive-therapy-treatment-response
#3
Zening Fu, Jing Sui, Randall Espinoza, Katherine Narr, Shile Qi, Mohammad S E Sendi, Christopher C Abbot, Vince D Calhoun
BACKGROUND: Depressive episodes (DEP) characterized by abnormalities in cognitive functions and mood is a leading cause of disability. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which involves a brief electrical stimulation of the anesthesia brain, is one of the most effective treatments used in patients with DEP due to its rapid efficacy. METHODS: In this work, we investigated how dynamic brain functional connectivity responds to ECT and whether the dynamic responses are associated with treatment outcomes and side effects in patients...
July 22, 2021: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34294612/novel-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-based-upon-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-hypoactivation-and-oxidative-stress
#4
REVIEW
Ting-I Chiang, Yi-Hsiang Yu, Chieh-Hsin Lin, Hsien-Yuan Lane
Early detection and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important. The current treatment for early AD is acetylcholine esterase inhibitors (AChEIs); however, the efficacy is poor. Besides, AChEI did not show efficacy in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Beta-amyloid (A) deposits have been regarded to be highly related to the pathogenesis of AD. However, many clinical trials aiming at the clearance of A deposits failed to improve the cognitive decline of AD, even at its early phase. There should be other important mechanisms unproven in the course of AD and MCI...
August 31, 2021: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34294606/current-movement-follows-previous-nontarget-movement-with-somatosensory-stimulation
#5
Hitoshi Oda, Yasushi Sawaguchi, Hiroshi Kunimura, Taku Kawasaki, Koichi Hiraoka
This study examined whether the current movement follows the previous movement and whether this process is enhanced by somatosensory stimulation or is gated while retrieving and using the memory of the previously practiced target end point. Healthy humans abducted the index finger to a previously practiced target (target movement) or abducted it freely without aiming at the target (nontarget movement). The end point of the nontarget movement had a positive correlation with the previous nontarget movement only when somatosensory stimulation was given during the previous movement, indicating that the current nontarget movement follows the previous nontarget movement with somatosensory stimulation...
July 21, 2021: Motor Control
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34294187/neurocognitive-functioning-in-young-adults-with-congenital-heart-disease-insights-from-a-case-control-study
#6
Ladina Schlosser, Nora Kessler, Maria Feldmann, Flavia Wehrle, Sarah Rometsch, Matthias Greutmann, Angela Oxenius, Peter Brugger, Beatrice Latal
BACKGROUND: While there is evidence that cognitive impairment of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) may persist into adolescence, little is known about the spectrum of neurocognitive functioning of young adults with this disorder. The aim of this study was to assess neurocognitive functioning in a population of young adults with different types of CHD. METHODS: Cross-sectional cohort study in young adults with CHD and a group-matched healthy control group...
July 23, 2021: Cardiology in the Young
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34290660/cognitive-tele-enhancement-in-healthy-older-adults-and-subjects-with-subjective-memory-complaints-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Cristina Alaimo, Elena Campana, Maria Rachele Stoppelli, Elena Gobbi, Francesca Baglio, Federica Rossetto, Giuliano Binetti, Orazio Zanetti, Rosa Manenti, Maria Cotelli
Background: In recent years, emphasis has been placed on cognitive enhancement to stimulate cognitive abilities and prevent functional decline. Considering that traditional face-to-face interventions can be very expensive and are not accessible to all individuals, the need to transfer care from the clinic to the patient's home is evident. In this regard, cognitive tele-enhancement interventions have received increased attention. Aim: The aim of this review was to provide an overview of protocols that apply remotely controlled cognitive training with individualized feedback on performance by the therapist in healthy older adults or participants with subjective memory complaints...
2021: Frontiers in Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34290359/targeting-lag3-gal-3-to-overcome-immunosuppression-and-enhance-anti-tumor-immune-responses-in-multiple-myeloma
#8
Jooeun Bae, Fabrizio Accardi, Teru Hideshima, Yu-Tzu Tai, Rao Prabhala, Aaron Shambley, Kenneth Wen, Sean Rowell, Paul G Richardson, Nikhil C Munshi, Kenneth C Anderson
Immune profiling in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and multiple myeloma (MM) provides the framework for developing novel immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we demonstrate decreased CD4+ Th cells, increased Treg and G-type MDSC, and upregulation of immune checkpoints on effector/regulatory and CD138+ cells in MM patients, compared MGUS/SMM patients or healthy individuals. Among the checkpoints profiled, LAG3 was most highly expressed on proliferating CD4+ Th and CD8+ Tc cells in MM patients BMMC and PBMC...
July 21, 2021: Leukemia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34290279/immune-system-challenge-improves-recognition-memory-and-reverses-malaria-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#9
Luciana Pereira de Sousa, Flávia Lima Ribeiro-Gomes, Roberto Farina de Almeida, Tadeu Mello E Souza, Guilherme Loureiro Werneck, Diogo Onofre Souza, Cláudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro
The immune system plays a role in the maintenance of healthy neurocognitive function. Different patterns of immune response triggered by distinct stimuli may affect nervous functions through regulatory or deregulatory signals, depending on the properties of the exogenous immunogens. Here, we investigate the effect of immune stimulation on cognitive-behavioural parameters in healthy mice and its impact on cognitive sequelae resulting from non-severe experimental malaria. We show that immune modulation induced by a specific combination of immune stimuli that induce a type 2 immune response can enhance long-term recognition memory in healthy adult mice subjected to novel object recognition task (NORT) and reverse a lack of recognition ability in NORT and anxiety-like behaviour in a light/dark task that result from a single episode of mild Plasmodium berghei ANKA malaria...
July 21, 2021: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34289887/altered-circulating-ccr6-and-cxcr3-t-cell-subsets-are-associated-with-poor-renal-prognosis-in-mpo-anca-associated-vasculitis
#10
Zhonghua Liao, Jiale Tang, Liying Luo, Shuanglinzi Deng, Lisa Luo, Fangyuan Wang, Xiangning Yuan, Xinyue Hu, Juntao Feng, Xiaozhao Li
BACKGROUND: Effector memory T cells are pivotal effectors of adaptive immunity with enhanced migration characteristics and are involved in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). The diversity of effector memory T cells in chemokine receptor expression has been well studied in proteinase 3 (PR3)-AAV. However, few studies have been conducted in myeloperoxidase (MPO)-AAV. Here, we characterized chemokine receptor expression on effector memory T cells from patients with active MPO-AAV...
July 21, 2021: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34285247/enhancing-reappraisal-of-negative-emotional-memories-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#11
Nadja Doerig, Rosa J Seinsche, Marius Moisa, Erich Seifritz, Christian C Ruff, Birgit Kleim
Reappraisal of negative memories and experiences is central for mental health and well-being. Deficiency of reappraisal lies at the core of many psychiatric disorders and is a key target for treatment. Here we apply transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to enhance reappraisal of negative emotional memories. In a randomised, sham-controlled, 2 × 2 between-subject and double-blinded study, we applied single sessions of anodal and sham tDCS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) of 101 healthy participants while reappraising a personal negative memory or engaging in a control task...
July 20, 2021: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34276481/emotional-infant-face-processing-in-women-with-major-depression-and-expecting-parents-with-depressive-symptoms
#12
Agnes Bohne, Dag Nordahl, Åsne A W Lindahl, Pål Ulvenes, Catharina E A Wang, Gerit Pfuhl
Processing of emotional facial expressions is of great importance in interpersonal relationships. Aberrant engagement with facial expressions, particularly an engagement with sad faces, loss of engagement with happy faces, and enhanced memory of sadness has been found in depression. Since most studies used adult faces, we here examined if such biases also occur in processing of infant faces in those with depression or depressive symptoms. In study 1, we recruited 25 inpatient women with major depression and 25 matched controls...
2021: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34275411/prospective-memory-training-for-healthy-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#13
Alex Pak Lik Tsang, Alma Au, Herman Hay Ming Lo
OBJECTIVES: This review systematically synthesizes existing evidence of prospective memory training for healthy older adults (> 55 years). Existing prospective memory training include strategy-based, process-based and combined regimens. Strategy-based training focuses on different mnemonics to compensate for aging declines in prospective memory. Process-based training aims to restore related cognitive processes to support prospective memory. Combined training utilizes both strategy-based and process-based regimens to enhance prospective memory performance...
July 19, 2021: Clinical Gerontologist
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34258946/cognitive-rehabilitation-in-a-case-of-traumatic-brain-injury-using-eeg-based-neurofeedback-in-comparison-to-conventional-methods
#14
Aida Arroyo-Ferrer, David de Noreña, Jose Ignacio Serrano, Marcos Ríos-Lago, Juan Pablo Romero
Severe traumatic brain injury residual cognitive impairments significantly impact the quality of life. EEG-based neurofeedback is a technique successfully used in traumatic brain injury and stroke to rehabilitate cognitive and motor sequelae. There are not individualized comparisons of the effects of EEG-based neurofeedback versus conventional neuropsychological rehabilitation. We present a case study of a traumatic brain injury subject in whom eight sessions of a neuropsychological rehabilitation protocol targeting attention, executive functions, and working memory as compared with a personalized EEG-based neurofeedback protocol focused on the electrodes and bands that differed from healthy subjects (F3, F1, Fz, FC3, FC1, and FCz), targeting the inhibition of theta frequency band (3 Hz-7 Hz) in the same number of sessions...
June 30, 2021: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34257382/a-single-session-of-moderate-intensity-exercise-influences-memory-endocannabinoids-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-in-men
#15
Blanca Marin Bosch, Aurélien Bringard, Maria G Logrieco, Estelle Lauer, Nathalie Imobersteg, Aurélien Thomas, Guido Ferretti, Sophie Schwartz, Kinga Igloi
Regular physical exercise enhances memory functions, synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Likewise, short periods of exercise, or acute exercise, benefit hippocampal plasticity in rodents, via increased endocannabinoids (especially anandamide, AEA) and BDNF release. Yet, it remains unknown whether acute exercise has similar effects on BDNF and AEA levels in humans, with parallel influences on memory performance. Here we combined blood biomarkers, behavioral, and fMRI measurements to assess the impact of a single session of physical exercise on associative memory and underlying neurophysiological mechanisms in healthy male volunteers...
July 13, 2021: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34256007/innate-like-gene-expression-of-lung-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells-during-experimental-human-influenza-a-clinical-study
#16
Suzanna Paterson, Satwik Kar, Seng Kuong Ung, Zoe Gardener, Emma Bergstrom, Stephanie Ascough, Mohini Kalyan, Joanna Zyla, Jeroen Maertzdorf, Hans-Joachim Mollenkopf, January Weiner, Agnieszka Jozwik, Hannah Jarvis, Akhilesh Jha, Bradly P Nicholson, Timothy Veldman, Chris W Woods, Patrick Mallia, Onn Min Kon, Stefan He Kaufmann, Peter J Openshaw, Christopher Chiu
RATIONALE: Suboptimal vaccine immunogenicity and antigenic mismatch, compounded by poor uptake, means that influenza remains a major global disease. T-cells recognising peptides derived from conserved viral proteins could enhance vaccine-induced cross-strain protection. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the kinetics, phenotypes and function of influenza virus-specific CD8+ resident-memory T-cells (Trm) in the lower airway and infer the molecular pathways associated with their response to infection in vivo...
July 13, 2021: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34247392/dopamine-modulations-of-reward-driven-music-memory-consolidation
#17
Laura Ferreri, Ernest Mas-Herrero, Gemma Cardona, Robert J Zatorre, Rosa M Antonijoan, Marta Valle, Jordi Riba, Pablo Ripollés, Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells
Music listening provides one of the most significant abstract rewards for humans because hearing music activates the dopaminergic mesolimbic system. Given the strong link between reward, dopamine, and memory, we aimed here to investigate the hypothesis that dopamine-dependent musical reward can drive memory improvements. Twenty-nine healthy participants of both sexes provided reward ratings of unfamiliar musical excerpts that had to be remembered following a consolidation period under three separate conditions: after the ingestion of a dopaminergic antagonist, a dopaminergic precursor, or a placebo...
July 11, 2021: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34222865/computational-support-not-primacy-distinguishes-compensatory-memory-reorganization-in-epilepsy
#18
Joseph I Tracy, Kapil Chaudhary, Shilpi Modi, Andrew Crow, Ashith Kumar, David Weinstein, Michael R Sperling
Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with impairment in episodic memory. A substantial subgroup, however, is able to maintain adequate memory despite temporal lobe pathology. Missing from prior work in cognitive reorganization is a direct comparison of temporal lobe epilepsy patients with intact status with those who are memory impaired. Little is known about the regional activations, functional connectivities and/or network reconfigurations that implement changes in primary computations or support functions that drive adaptive plasticity and compensated memory...
2021: Brain communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34209677/therapeutic-effects-of-catechins-in-less-common-neurological-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Giorgia Sebastiani, Laura Almeida-Toledano, Mariona Serra-Delgado, Elisabet Navarro-Tapia, Sebastian Sailer, Olga Valverde, Oscar Garcia-Algar, Vicente Andreu-Fernández
In recent years, neurological and neurodegenerative disorders research has focused on altered molecular mechanisms in search of potential pharmacological targets, e.g., imbalances in mechanisms of response to oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and neuronal plasticity, which occur in less common neurological and neurodegenerative pathologies (Huntington disease, multiple sclerosis, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, and Down syndrome). Here, we assess the effects of different catechins (particularly of epigalocatechin-3-gallate, EGCG) on these disorders, as well as their use in attenuating age-related cognitive decline in healthy individuals...
June 29, 2021: Nutrients
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34206738/beneficial-effects-of-exogenous-ketogenic-supplements-on-aging-processes-and-age-related-neurodegenerative-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Zsolt Kovács, Brigitta Brunner, Csilla Ari
Life expectancy of humans has increased continuously up to the present days, but their health status (healthspan) was not enhanced by similar extent. To decrease enormous medical, economical and psychological burden that arise from this discrepancy, improvement of healthspan is needed that leads to delaying both aging processes and development of age-related diseases, thereby extending lifespan. Thus, development of new therapeutic tools to alleviate aging processes and related diseases and to increase life expectancy is a topic of increasing interest...
June 26, 2021: Nutrients
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