Natsuki Okada, Hong-Kean Ooi, Kensuke Taira
To examine the Toxocara cati larval migration in mouse fetuses through vertical transmission, 7 pregnant mice were orally inoculated with 5000 embryonated eggs at day 4 and again with the same dose at day 9 of gestation (total 10,000 eggs / mouse). Seven non-pregnant mice of the same age were also inoculated likewise. All mice were necropsied 12 days after the first inoculation with eggs. The carcass, viscera, uterus, placenta and fetuses were individually removed and digested with pepsin for larval counts...
January 4, 2021: Veterinary Parasitology
Sebastián Recce, Emilia Huber, Ulises S Notaro, Fernanda M Rodríguez, Hugo H Ortega, Florencia Rey, Marcelo L Signorini, Natalia R Salvetti
Heat stress has been widely studied in relation to its effects on the production and reproduction of dairy cattle. However, the long-term effects of heat stress during intrauterine development on adult cows have been scarcely considered. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate possible changes in the reproductive performance of Holstein cows gestated under different values of the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) during their intrauterine development. Data collected from a database of reproductive and productive records of 10,790 Holstein cows from the central region of Argentina and the THI data from the agrometeorological station of the Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA) EEA Rafaela, Santa Fe, Argentina, were used...
January 6, 2021: Theriogenology
M A S Novaes, L F Lima, N A R Sá, A C A Ferreira, V M Paes, J F Souza, B G Alves, N V Gramosa, C A A Torres, B Pukazhenthi, E L Gastal, J R Figueiredo
This study evaluated the effect of adding ultra-diluted and dynamized Arnica montana 6 cH, and its vehicle (0.3% ethanol) to the in vitro maturation (IVM) medium, in the absence (experiment 1) or presence (experiment 2) of heat stress (HS), on bovine oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo production (IVEP). In experiment 1 (n = 902 cumulus oocyte complexes, COCs), the treatments were 1) IVM medium (Control treatment), 2) IVM medium + 0.3% ethanol, and 3) IVM medium + Arnica montana 6 cH. In experiment 2 (n = 1064 COCs), the treatments were 1) IVM medium without HS, 2) IVM medium under HS, 3) IVM medium + ethanol under HS, and 4) IVM medium + Arnica montana under HS...
January 3, 2021: Theriogenology
Kathy M Redfern, Heidi J Hollands, Joanne Hosking, C Ross Welch, Jonathan H Pinkney, Gail A Rees
BACKGROUND: It is widely acknowledged that maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with increased risk of fetal macrosomia and recent studies have suggested a role for the timing and composition of GWG. AIMS: To examine the effect of the rate of change in GWG and maternal upper-body subcutaneous fat on neonatal anthropometric outcomes in a pilot observational study amongst women with obesity. STUDY DESIGN: Expectant women with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2 at first antenatal appointment were recruited at 12 weeks gestation...
January 4, 2021: Early Human Development
Monika Korenc, Laurent Zieleskiewicz, Tatjana Stopar Pintaric, Iva Blajic, Jana Ambrozic, Miha Lucovnik
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vitamin C in the first three days postpartum reduces pulmonary oedema (PE) assessed by lung ultrasound in patients with severe preeclampsia. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. SETTING: Tertiary perinatal centre. POPULATION: Consecutively admitted patients with singleton pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia. METHODS: Thirty-four patients received vitamin C (1...
January 13, 2021: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Carly I Hirschberg, Meghana Limaye, Ashley Roman, Steven Friedman, Jennifer L Lighter, Jessica Deeb, William Schweizer, Lili Wei, Shilpi S Mehta-Lee
OBJECTIVE: In October 2018, a measles (rubeola) outbreak was identified in New York City (NYC) & Rockland County (RC) and a public health campaign and hospital policy changes were made to increase awareness of the importance of vaccination and increase vaccination rates. We describe the prevalence of rubeola immunity in pregnant women and the change in uptake of postpartum MMR vaccination before and during the measles outbreak. METHODS: A multi-pronged intervention was developed by the health system with the intent of raising awareness of the outbreak, identifying patients at risk of contracting measles during pregnancy, and limiting exposure of inpatients to the disease...
January 13, 2021: American journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM
Anthony Cyr, Yanjun Zhong, Steven E Reis, Rami A Namas, Andrew Amoscato, Brian Zuckerbraun, Jason Sperry, Ruben Zamora, Yoram Vodovotz, Timothy R Billiar
BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of death and disability for individuals under age 55. Many severely injured trauma patients experience complicated clinical courses despite appropriate initial therapy. We sought to identify novel circulating metabolomic signatures associated with clinical outcomes following trauma. STUDY DESIGN: Untargeted metabolomics and circulating plasma immune mediator analysis was performed on plasma collected during three post-injury time periods (<6h, 6h-24h, D2-D5) in critically ill trauma patients enrolled between April 2004 and May 2013 at UPMC Presbyterian Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA...
January 13, 2021: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Leslie Po, Jacqueline Thomas, Kelsey Mills, Andrew Zakhari, Togas Tulandi, Mira Shuman, Andrea Page
OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based algorithm to guide the diagnosis and management of pregnancy of unknown location and tubal and nontubal ectopic pregnancy. TARGET POPULATION: All patients of reproductive age. BENEFITS, HARMS, AND COSTS: The implementation of this guideline aims to benefit patients with positive β-human chorionic gonadotropin results and provide physicians with a standard algorithm for expectant, medical, and surgical treatment of pregnancy of unknown location and tubal pregnancy and nontubal ectopic pregnancies...
January 13, 2021: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC
Leslie Po, Jacqueline Thomas, Kelsey Mills, Andrew Zakhari, Nogas Tulandi, Mira Shuman, Andrea Page
OBJECTIF: Fournir un algorithme fondé sur des données probantes pour orienter le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la grossesse de localisation indéterminée et de la grossesse ectopique tubaire ou non tubaire. POPULATION CIBLE: Toutes les patientes en âge de procréer. BéNéFICES, RISQUES ET COûTS: La mise en œuvre de la présente directive a pour objectif de bénéficier aux patientes ayant obtenu un résultat positif pour la sous-unité bêta de la gonadotrophine chorionique et de fournir aux médecins un algorithme normalisé pour l'expectative et le traitement pharmacologique ou chirurgical en cas de grossesse de localisation indéterminée et de grossesse ectopique tubaire ou non tubaire...
January 13, 2021: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC
Kunal Das, Manish Raturi, Nitika Agrawal, Mansi Kala, Anuradha Kusum
The National Blood Transfusion Services under the aegis of the ministry of health and family welfare, India has recently issued guidelines regarding the blood donor selection criteria and the processing of blood. Care has been taken to make the blood transfusions safer. However, COVID-19 has disrupted the organization of the voluntary blood donation drives, whole blood donations [WBD] and restricted the donors' movement to the blood transfusion centres all across the world. While sickness and the need for transfusions are very much in place, the gap of demand against blood collection has widened...
January 13, 2021: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
Ahmed Hosni, Sanaa Abd El-Twab, Manal Abdul-Hamid, Els Prinsen, Hamada AbdElgawad, Adel Abdel-Moneim, Gerrit T S Beemster
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major pregnancy-related disorder with an increasing prevalence worldwide. GDM is associated with altered placental vascular functions and has severe consequences for fetal growth. There is no commonly accepted medication for GDM due to safety considerations. Actions of the currently limited therapeutic options focus exclusively on lowering the blood glucose level without paying attention to the altered placental vascular reactivity and remodelling. We used the fat-sucrose diet/streptozotocin (FSD/STZ) rat model of GDM to explore the efficacy of cinnamaldehyde (Ci; 20 mg/kg/day), a promising antidiabetic agent for GDM, and glyburide/metformin-HCl (Gly/Met; 0...
January 13, 2021: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
T C Peixoto, E G Moura, P N Soares, V S T Rodrigues, S Claudio-Neto, E Oliveira, A C Manhães, P C Lisboa
Tobacco smoke during gestation is associated with increased consumption of palatable foods by the offspring in humans and rats. Postpartum relapse is observed in lactating women who quit smoking during pregnancy, putting their children at risk of adverse health outcomes caused by secondhand smoke. Nicotine is transferred through milk and alters the dopaminergic reward system of adult male rats, reducing dopamine action in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Here, we evaluated the long-term effects of nicotine-only exposure during lactation on eating behavior, anxiety, locomotion, dopaminergic system, hypothalamic leptin signaling and nicotinic receptor in the adult female rat progeny...
January 13, 2021: Appetite
Heze Liu, Liang Liu, Hui Han, Kexin Liu, Hui Wang
The panel of suitable reference genes in the fetal liver have not been reported. In this study, five commonly used reference genes (GAPDH, β-actin, Rn18 s, Rpl13a, and Rps29) were firstly selected as candidates. Bestkeeper, GeNorm, and NormFinder software were then used to screen out the panel of suitable reference genes of male and female fetal rat liver under physiological and prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) conditions. Finally, we verified the reliability of the screened panel of reference genes by standardizing sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) expression with different reference genes...
January 13, 2021: Reproductive Toxicology
Yaqun Zhang, Jie Qiu, Min Zhou, Xiaochun He, Hongmei Cui, Xiaoying Xu, Ling Lv, Xiaojuan Lin, Chong Zhang, Honghong Zhang, Ruifeng Xu, Bin Yi, Baohong Mao, Huang Huang, Lan Jin, Haoran Zhuo, Peiyuan Sun, Qing Liu, Yawei Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Birth defects are a leading cause of infant death. Pregnant women spend a large amount of time indoors, and little research from population-based studies has investigated the association between indoor air pollution and birth defects. We aimed to examine whether using coal, biomass, or electromagnetic stoves for cooking is associated with risk of birth defects compared to using gas stoves. METHODS: A birth cohort study was conducted from 2010-2012 in Lanzhou, China...
January 13, 2021: Environmental Research
Heather H Burris, Molly Passarella, Sara C Handley, Sindhu K Srinivas, Scott A Lorch
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is higher among Black compared to White people in the United States. Whether Black-White disparities in maternal in-hospital mortality during the delivery hospitalization vary across hospital types (Black-serving vs. non-Black-serving and teaching vs. non-teaching) and whether overall maternal mortality differs across hospital types is not known. OBJECTIVES: 1) Determine whether risk-adjusted Black-White disparities in maternal mortality during the delivery hospitalization vary by hospital types - this is analysis of disparities in mortality within hospital types...
January 13, 2021: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Sarah A Sanders, Nancy A Niemczyk, Jessica G Burke, Ann M McCarthy, Martha A Terry
OBJECTIVE: To identify demographic and clinical factors associated with birth center clients electing hospitalization for labor and birth and to explore the timing and rationale for elective hospitalization via health records. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of multiyear data from a quality assurance project at a single birth center. We compared two subsamples-birth center preference group and hospital preference group-and described the apparent rationale for transfers among clients in the latter group...
January 13, 2021: Nursing for Women's Health
Emma C Schlegel, Laureen H Smith
Women in the period of emerging adulthood (18-25 years of age) have the greatest rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Despite this disproportionate risk, women's sexual and reproductive health needs during emerging adulthood are poorly understood. As a result, few age-specific policies or person-centered practice guidelines are available to reduce sexual risk. In this commentary we explore the unique characteristics of emerging adulthood that contribute to greater sexual and reproductive health risks for women...
January 13, 2021: Nursing for Women's Health
Nicklas Brustad, Jens H Greve, Hooman Mirzakhani, Casper-Emil T Pedersen, Anders U Eliasen, Jakob Stokholm, Jessica Lasky-Su, Klaus Bønnelykke, Augusto A Litonjua, Scott T Weiss, Hans Bisgaard, Bo L Chawes
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest a protective effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy on offspring risk of persistent wheeze, but only in some individuals, which might be explained by variations in vitamin D pathway genes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation by maternal and offspring vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotype and GC genotype, encoding vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), in two RCTs. METHODS: In the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010 ) RCT we analyzed the effect of high-dose vitamin D during pregnancy on the risk of persistent wheeze age 0-3 years by variants in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VDR (rs1544410, rs2228570, rs7975128, rs7975232) and GC (rs4588, rs7041)...
January 16, 2021: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Jonathan C K Wells, Akanksha A Marphatia, Mario Cortina-Borja, Dharma S Manandhar, Alice M Reid, Naomi Saville
OBJECTIVES: Evolutionary perspectives on human childbirth have primarily focused on characteristics of our species in general, rather than variability within and between contemporary populations. We use an evolutionary framework to explore how physical and demographic characteristics of mothers shape the risks of childbirth complications in rural lowland Nepal, where childbearing typically commences in adolescence and chronic undernutrition is widespread, though maternal overweight is increasing in association with nutrition transition...
January 15, 2021: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Da Som Jeong, Myoung Hee Kim, Ji-Yeon Lee
Pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are fetal proteins secreted by the placenta during pregnancy. The PSG level in maternal serum is an indicator of risk for pregnancy complications. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying PSG gene expression. Recently, the importance of epigenetic regulation of placental genes has been emphasized in the study of developmental defects and placental disease. In this study, the role of the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) in regulation of PSG expression was investigated to better understand the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of the PSG genes...
January 16, 2021: FEBS Open Bio
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