Iain Crossingham, Sally Turner, Sanjay Ramakrishnan, Anastasia Fries, Matthew Gowell, Farhat Yasmin, Rebekah Richardson, Philip Webb, Emily O'Boyle, Timothy Sc Hinks
BACKGROUND: Asthma affects 350 million people worldwide including 45% to 70% with mild disease. Treatment is mainly with inhalers containing beta₂-agonists, typically taken as required to relieve bronchospasm, and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) as regular preventive therapy. Poor adherence to regular therapy is common and increases the risk of exacerbations, morbidity and mortality. Fixed-dose combination inhalers containing both a steroid and a fast-acting beta₂-agonist (FABA) in the same device simplify inhalers regimens and ensure symptomatic relief is accompanied by preventative therapy...
May 4, 2021: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Richard Kwizera, Felix Bongomin, Ronald Olum, David B Meya, William Worodria, Freddie Bwanga, Stephen J Fowler, Robin Gore, David W Denning, Bruce J Kirenga
Fungal sensitization is associated with poor asthma control. We aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with fungal asthma among Ugandan adults. Individuals aged ≥18 years with a new diagnosis of asthma in the last 12 months participating in the African Severe Asthma Program constituted the study population. Skin prick test results, clinical and demographic data were retrieved from the database, and serum Aspergillus fumigatus specific antibodies and total IgE were measured in stored blood...
May 4, 2021: Medical Mycology
Kan Zhang, Yuchen Feng, Yuxia Liang, Wenliang Wu, Chenli Chang, Dian Chen, Shengchong Chen, Jiali Gao, Gongqi Chen, Lingling Yi, Dan Cheng, Guohua Zhen
The epithelial cell-derived cytokines IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP initiate type 2 inflammation in allergic diseases including asthma. However, the signaling pathway regulating these cytokines expression remains elusive. Since microRNAs are pivotal regulators of gene expression, we profiled microRNA expression in bronchial epithelial brushings from type 2-low and type 2-high asthma patients. MiR-206 was the most highly expressed epithelial microRNA in type 2-high asthma relative to type 2-low asthma but was downregulated in both subsets compared with healthy controls...
May 4, 2021: JCI Insight
Huan Xiao, Qian-Nan Zhang, Qi-Xiang Sun, Lao-Dong Li, Si-Yue Xu, Chao-Qian Li
Background: Mycobacterium vaccae vaccine, a composition of Mycobacterium proteins, has been known to have bidirectional immunomodulatory functions. Recent studies have shown that M. vaccae has a therapeutic potential for treating asthma. However, little is known regarding the effect of M. vaccae aerosol inhalation during allergen sensitization or challenge on asthma. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect and the underlying mechanism of M. vaccae aerosol inhalation during allergen sensitization or challenge on airway inflammation in an asthma mouse model...
May 4, 2021: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Zane Stromberga, Charlotte Phelps, Jessica Smith, Christian Moro
Modern technologies are often utilised in schools or universities with a variety of educational goals in mind. Of particular interest is the enhanced interactivity and engagement offered by mixed reality devices such as the HoloLens, as well as the ability to explore anatomical models of disease using augmented and virtual realities. As the students are required to learn an ever-increasing number of diseases within a university health science or medical degree, it is crucial to consider which technologies provide value to educators and students...
2021: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Fevzi Yılmaz, Ökkeş Zortuk
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is a rare condition characterized by chest pain of sudden- onset, difficulty breathing, dysphagia, dysphonia, and subcutaneous emphysema, which are some-times -accompanied by pain in the neck or back. This condition typically has a benign character that limits itself, and supportive therapy is all that is needed; however, life-threatening consequences may occur, such as upper respiratory tract obstruction, esophageal injury, and tracheal damage, requiring surgery. We report here a man aged 19 years who coughed vigorously due to acute allergic asthma, which lead to subcutaneous emphysema starting from the neck down to the chest, mediastinum and spinal epidural space...
April 30, 2021: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Henrik Watz, Sara Barile, Daniele Guastalla, Eva Topole, Daniela Cocconi, Benjamin Mignot, Dennis Belmans, Dildar Duman, Gianluigi Poli, Leonardo M Fabbri
Background: Peripheral deposition of inhaled medication is important as small airway disease has a key role in asthma. In this study, we compared the lung deposition at different mean flow rates of three inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting beta2 -agonist (LABA) combinations delivered by dry powder inhaler (DPI), that is, Foster NEXThaler® (extrafine formulation of beclomethasone/formoterol), Relvar Ellipta® (fluticasone furoate/vilanterol trifenatate), and Symbicort Turbohaler® (budesonide/formoterol)...
April 28, 2021: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
E Roca, C Lombardi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2021: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ningjing Qian, Ying Gao, Jian'an Wang, Yaping Wang
Despite the great progress made in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the morbidity and mortality of CVDs remains high due to the lack of effective treatment strategy. Inflammation is a central pathophysiological feature of the heart in response to both acute and chronic injury, while the molecular basis and underlying mechanisms remains obscure. Interleukin (IL)-13, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been known as a critical mediator in allergy and asthma. Recent studies appraise the role of IL-13 in CVDs, revealing that IL-13 is not only involved in more obvious cardiac inflammatory diseases such as myocarditis but also relevant to acute or chronic CVDs of other origins, such as myocardial infarction and heart failure...
May 4, 2021: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Flavie Payette, Audrey Charlebois, Julie-Hélène Fairbrother, Guy Beauchamp, Mathilde Leclere
BACKGROUND: Nicoletella semolina was identified in the airways of horses and its low prevalence could be because of its difficult differentiation from other Pasteurellaceae. OBJECTIVES: To develop a molecular method for the identification of N. semolina and to evaluate its prevalence in the mouth and the airways of healthy and severe asthmatic horses. ANIMALS: Six healthy and 6 severely asthmatic horses in phase I, 10 severely asthmatic horses in phase II, and 10 healthy horses in phase III...
May 4, 2021: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 28, 2021: Bioscience Reports
Neeraj Gupta, Anil Sachdev, Dhiren Gupta, Suresh Gupta
Background: Lung function testing is recommended for the management of asthma. Due to certain limitations of conventional spirometry in vulnerable patients, forced oscillation technique (FOT) has been studied with promising results. As there is a paucity of data from developing world, we planned to conduct this study in children using FOT. To assess airway reversibility after inhaled salbutamol in asymptomatic children with suspected asthma. Settings: This study was conducted at pediatric asthma clinic of a tertiary care referral hospital in North India...
May 2021: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Sergio Piñeiro-Hermida, Paula Martínez, Maria A Blasco
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting 300 million people worldwide. As telomere shortening is a well-established hallmark of aging and that asthma incidence decreases with age, here we aimed to study the role of short telomeres in asthma pathobiology. To this end, wild-type and telomerase-deficient mice with short telomeres (third-generation (G3 Tert-/- mice)) were challenged with intranasal house dust mite (HDM) extract. We also challenged with HDM wild-type mice in which we induced a telomere dysfunction by the administration of 6-thio-2´-deoxyguanosine (6-thio-dG)...
May 4, 2021: Aging Cell
Bing Liu, Han Sun, Junxia Wang, Haibin Liu, Changjuan Zhao
Highly expressed enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) has been associated with many kinds of cancers and other diseases, while its functional role in asthma is largely unknown. In our study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of EZH2 in the development of asthma. An ovalbumin-induced mouse asthma model was established, followed by injection of short hairpin RNA (sh)-EZH2, overexpression-B-cell translocation gene 2 (oe-BTG2), microRNA (miR)-34b agomir as well as their corresponding controls. Next, primary bronchial epithelial cells were isolated and cultured, followed by treatment of oe-FOXO3, miR-34b inhibitor, sh-EZH2, oe-BTG2, and corresponding controls...
May 3, 2021: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
K R Bharath Kumar Reddy, Neeraj Gupta, Barnali G Bhattacharya, Nayan Mani Deka, Parmarth Chandane, Rashmi Kapoor, Sarika Gupta, Sowmya A Nagarajan, G V Basavaraja, Bakul Jayant Parekh
JUSTIFICATION: Rising air pollution is an ever-growing threat to many human diseases. Poor air quality has been directly correlated with respiratory allergies with a disproportionate affection among the pediatric age group. A clear understanding of common air pollutants and their potential contribution in allergic rhinitis and asthma is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To formulate a consensus statement for appropriate understanding among pediatricians and general practitioners about the effects of air pollution on respiratory allergies and their prevention...
May 3, 2021: Indian Pediatrics
Kawsari Abdullah, Deshayne B Fell, Dhenuka Radhakrishnan, Steven Hawken, David W Johnson, Piush Mandhane, Teresa To, Gary Joubert, Amy C Plint
INTRODUCTION: The Canadian Bronchiolitis Epinephrine Steroid Trial (CanBEST) and the Bronchiolitis Severity Cohort (BSC) study enrolled infants with bronchiolitis during the first year of life. The CanBEST trial suggested that treatment of infants with a combined therapy of high-dose corticosteroids and nebulised epinephrine reduced the risk of admission to hospital. Our study aims to-(1) quantify the risk of developing asthma by age 5 and 10 years in children treated with high-dose corticosteroid and epinephrine for bronchiolitis during infancy, (2) identify risk factors associated with development of asthma in children with bronchiolitis during infancy, (3) develop asthma prediction models for children diagnosed with bronchiolitis during infancy...
May 3, 2021: BMJ Open
Michelle M Cloutier, Stephen J Teach, Robert F Lemanske, Kathryn V Blake
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2021: Pediatrics
Misaki Matsumoto, Junjie Liu, Kazumi Iwata, Masakazu Ibi, Nozomi Asaoka, Xueqing Zhang, Masato Katsuyama, Masaya Matsuda, Takeshi Nabe, Katrin Schröder, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura
We investigate as yet an unidentified role of NOX1, a non-phagocytic isoform of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase, in immune responses using Nox1-knockout mice (Nox1-KO). The transcripts of NOX1 was expressed in lymphoid tissues, including the spleen, thymus, bone marrow, and inguinal lymphoid nodes. When antibody production after ovalbumin (OVA) immunization was examined, no significant differences were observed in serum anti-OVA IgG levels between wild-type mice (WT) and Nox1-KO. In the experimental asthma, the infiltration of eosinophils and the Th2 cytokine response after the induction of asthma with OVA were similar between the two genotypes...
June 2021: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Melanie A Ruffner, Jonathan M Spergel, Terri F Brown-Whitehorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2021: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Lara S Ford, George N Konstantinou, Jean-Christoph Caubet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2021: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
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