Harriet Mpairwe
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of allergy-related diseases (ARDs), including rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and eczema, is on the increase globally. The causes of this increase are not well established. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk factors associated with ARDs among schoolchildren in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of a large asthma case-control study involving 1,700 schoolchildren, 5-17 years, in urban Uganda...
October 24, 2020: Clinical and Experimental Allergy
Yin Yao, Cai-Ling Chen, Di Yu, Zheng Liu
Allergic diseases are characterized by overactive type 2 immune responses to allergens and immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity. Emerging evidence suggests that follicular helper T (TFH ) cells, rather than type 2 T-helper (TH 2) cells, play a crucial role in controlling IgE production. However, follicular regulatory T (TFR ) cells, a specialized subset of regulatory T (TREG ) cells resident in B-cell follicles, restricts TFH cell-mediated help in extrafollicular antibody production, germinal center (GC) formation, immunoglobulin affinity maturation, and long-lived, high-affinity plasma and memory B-cell differentiation...
October 24, 2020: Allergy
Maleewan Kitcharoensakkul, Leonard B Bacharier, Toni L Schweiger, Brad Wilson, Charles W Goss, Daphne Lew, Kenneth B Schechtman, Mario Castro
BACKGROUND: Children with severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in infancy have increased risks of asthma and reduced lung function in later life. There are limited studies on the longitudinal changes of lung function and bronchial hyperreactivity from early to late childhood in infants hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 206 children with their first episode of RSV-confirmed bronchiolitis in the first year of life, 122 had spirometry performed at least twice between 5-16 years of age...
October 24, 2020: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Jennifer D Brooks, Susan E Bronskill, Longdi Fu, Farah E Saxena, Jasleen Arneja, Virgiliu Bogdan Pinzaru, Evdokia Anagnostou, Kirk Nylen, John McLaughlin, Karen Tu
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder requiring significant health and educational resources for affected individuals. A reference standard for ASD was generated from an existing population-based cohort of 10,000 children and youth aged 1-24 years who were randomly selected for chart abstraction from 29,256 patients from 119 family physicians. We developed and validated an algorithm to identify children and youth with ASD within an electronic medical record system (N = 80,237, aged 1-24 years) in order to examine the prevalence of comorbidities and quantify health system utilization within the cohort...
October 24, 2020: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
James W Pinkerton, Richard Y Kim, L Köninger, Nicole S Armbruster, Nicole G Hansbro, Alexandra C Brown, Ranjith Jayaraman, Sijie Shen, Nisar Malek, Matthew A Cooper, Peter Nordkild, Jay C Horvat, Benjamin A H Jensen, Jan Wehkamp, Philip M Hansbro
BACKGROUND: Asthma is an airway inflammatory disease and a major health problem worldwide. Anti-inflammatory steroids and bronchodilators are the gold-standard therapy for asthma. However, they do not prevent the development of the disease and critically, a subset of asthmatics are resistant to steroid therapy. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the therapeutic potential of human β-defensins (hBD), such as hBD2 mild to moderate and severe asthma. METHODS: We investigated the role of hBD2 in a steroid sensitive, house dust mite-induced allergic airways disease (AAD) model; and a steroid insensitive model combining ovalbumin-induced, AAD with C...
October 23, 2020: Clinical and Experimental Allergy
Gerald G Kellar, Stephen R Reeves, Kaitlyn A Barrow, Jason S Debley, Thomas N Wight, Steven F Ziegler
Early life respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection has been linked to the onset of asthma. Despite this association, our knowledge of the progression of the initial viral infection is limited, and no safe or effective vaccine currently exists. Bronchioalveolar lavage, whole-lung cellular isolation, and gene expression analysis were performed on 3-wk- (juvenile) and 8-wk-old (adult) RSV-infected C57BL/6 mice to investigate age-related differences in immunologic responses; juvenile mice displayed a sustained myeloid infiltrate (including monocytes and neutrophils) with increased RNA expression of Ccl2 , Ccl3 , and Ccl4 , when compared with adult mice, at 72 h postinfection...
October 23, 2020: Journal of Immunology
John M Dennis, Bilal A Mateen, Raphael Sonabend, Nicholas J Thomas, Kashyap A Patel, Andrew T Hattersley, Spiros Denaxas, Andrew P McGovern, Sebastian J Vollmer
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between type 2 diabetes and all-cause mortality among adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the critical care setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a nationwide retrospective cohort study in people admitted to hospital in England with COVID-19 requiring admission to a high dependency unit (HDU) or intensive care unit (ICU) between 1 March 2020 and 27 July 2020. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate 30-day in-hospital all-cause mortality associated with type 2 diabetes, with adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, obesity, and other major comorbidities (chronic respiratory disease, asthma, chronic heart disease, hypertension, immunosuppression, chronic neurological disease, chronic renal disease, and chronic liver disease)...
October 23, 2020: Diabetes Care
Steffi M J Janssen, Martijn A Spruit, Jeanine C Antons, Remco S Djamin, Jannie J Abbink, Hanneke A C van Helvoort, Alex J van 't Hul
BACKGROUND: Pharmacotherapy is key in asthma control, including preventing lung function decline, in primary care. However, patients' physical functioning (eg, physical capacity [PC] [=can do] and physical activity [PA] [=do do]) correlates poorly with lung function. Therefore, a better insight into the physical function of patients with asthma is needed, using the "can do, do do" concept. OBJECTIVE: To explore the "can do, do do" concept in adult patients with asthma at referral for the first time to an outpatient consultation of a pulmonologist...
October 20, 2020: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Deepa Rastogi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2020: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Chidiebele Petronilla Ojukwu, Precious Chinecherem Ogualaji, Stephen Sunday Ede, Rita Nkechi Ativie, Chigozie Okwudili Obaseki, Adaora Justina Okemuo, Franklin Onyedinma Irem
Purpose : To determine the pulmonary functions and their associated risk factors among school teachers. Materials and method : This was a cross-sectional ex-post factor study with 121 participants (20 males and 101 females). The setting for this study included 11 private schools and 8 government schools. Participants were recruited using non-probability sampling techniques. Subjective data were collected using a self-administered asthma questionnaire. A spirometer was used for measuring pulmonary function values and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for inferential statistics...
October 23, 2020: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Carlo Caffarelli, Carla Mastrorilli, Michela Procaccianti, Angelica Santoro
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that in children is often allergen-driven with a type 2 inflammation. Sublingual immunotherapy represents an important progress in the use of personalized medicine in children with allergic asthma. It is a viable option for house dust mite-driven asthma and in subjects with the asthma associated with allergic rhinitis. The use and indications for isolated asthma caused by other allergens are still controversial owing to heterogeneity of commercially available products and methodological limitations of studies in children...
October 21, 2020: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Carlotta Biagi, Alessandro Rocca, Giulia Poletti, Marianna Fabi, Marcello Lanari
Acute bronchiolitis represents the leading cause of hospitalization in infants. Together with a respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus (RV) is one of the most common pathogens associated with bronchiolitis, and its genetic diversity (>150 types) makes the recurrence of RV infections each year quite typical. The frequency of RV infection and co-infection with other viruses and its impact on the clinical course of bronchiolitis have been studied by several authors with controversial results. Some studies demonstrate that multiple virus infections result in more severe clinical presentation and a higher risk of complications, whereas other studies suggest no influence on clinical course...
October 21, 2020: Microorganisms
Soo Min Han, Aristea Binia, Keith M Godfrey, Sarah El-Heis, Wayne S Cutfield
Atopic disorders (AD), often coexistent with food allergy (FA), start developing in early life and have lifelong health consequences. Breastfeeding is thought to be protective against AD and FA, but the data are controversial, and mechanisms are not well understood. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are complex carbohydrates that are abundant in human milk. These are thought to contribute to the development of the infant immune system by (i) promoting healthy microbiome, (ii) inhibiting pathogen binding to gut mucosa and (iii) modulating the immune system...
October 21, 2020: Nutrients
Sungroul Kim, Jungeun Lee, Sujung Park, Guillaume Rudasingwa, Sangwoon Lee, Sol Yu, Dae Hyun Lim
Various studies have indicated that particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) could cause adverse health effects on pulmonary functions in susceptible groups, especially asthmatic children. Although the impact of ambient PM2.5 on children's lower respiratory health has been well-established, information regarding the associations between indoor PM2.5 levels and respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children is relatively limited. This randomized, crossover intervention study was conducted among 26 asthmatic children's homes located in Incheon metropolitan city, Korea...
October 21, 2020: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yusuke Okubo, Kenta Horimukai, Nobuaki Michihata, Kojiro Morita, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga
BACKGROUND: High antibiotic prescribing rates for adults with an asthma exacerbation have been reported in developed countries, but few studies have assessed the variation of antibiotic and adjunctive treatment in the routine care of children. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the trends in health resource utilization for children hospitalized for asthma exacerbation, ascertained the variations of practices across hospitals and geographic location, and classified these different patterns at hospital levels...
October 22, 2020: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Fatemeh Moradi, Behnaz Enjezab, Akram Ghadiri-Anari
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health emergency. According to the findings, male patients with COVID-19 infection are at an increased risk for severe complications than females. The causes of this issue are unknown and are most probably multifactorial. Sexual hormones affect the immune system, so estrogen strengthens the immune system, and testosterone suppresses it. Due to the reports of the high prevalence of androgenic alopecia in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and a higher risk of respiratory disease and increased use of allergy/asthma medications among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as a hyperandrogenism condition compared with non-PCOS women, this review aimed to evaluate androgens role in COVID-19...
October 15, 2020: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Evin J Howard, Stephen J Vesper, Barbara J Guthrie, Carter R Petty, Valeria A Ramdin, William J Sheehan, Jonathan M Gaffin, Perdita Permaul, Peggy S Lai, Lisa M Bartnikas, Amparito Cunningham, Marissa Hauptman, Diane R Gold, Sachin N Baxi, Wanda Phipatanakul
BACKGROUND: Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases of children in the United States (US). Mold exposures have been linked to asthma development and exacerbation. In homes, mold exposures have been quantified using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) and higher home ERMI values have been linked to occupant asthma. OBJECTIVE: In this analysis of the School Inner-City Asthma Study 2 (SICAS 2), we aimed to evaluate the ERMI's applicability to measuring mold in schools compared to homes, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of asthma in schools and mold levels, and to examine the prevalence of asthma in relationship to students' demographics and the physical characteristics of school-buildings...
October 19, 2020: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Kanako Yoshida, Tetsuji Takabayashi, Atsushi Kaneko, Mikina Takiyama, Masafumi Sakashita, Yoshimasa Imoto, Yukinori Kato, Norihiko Narita, Shigeharu Fujieda
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The traditional Japanese herbal medicine Shin'iseihaito was reported to ameliorate the airway type 2 inflammatory response in clinical and experimental studies. Airway type 2 inflammatory diseases, including bronchial asthma and eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS), often coexist and interact with each other. However, it is still unclear how Shin'iseihaito exerts its pharmacological effects on cells involved in airway mucosa. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to examine the direct effect of baicalin, a representative bioactive compound of Shin'iseihaito, on type 2 immune responses in human airway epithelial cells and mast cells...
October 19, 2020: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Howard H F Tang, Anna Lang, Shu Mei Teo, Louise M Judd, Ronald Gangnon, Michael D Evans, Kristine E Lee, Rose Vrtis, Patrick G Holt, Robert F Lemanske, Daniel J Jackson, Kathryn E Holt, Michael Inouye, James E Gern
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that the nasal microbiome may correlate strongly with the presence or future risk of childhood asthma. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested whether developmental trajectories of the nasopharyngeal microbiome in early life and the composition of the microbiome during illnesses were related to risk of childhood asthma. METHODS: Children participating in the Childhood Origins of Asthma study (n=285) provided nasopharyngeal mucus samples in the first two years of life, during routine healthy study visits (2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months of age) and episodes of respiratory illnesses, which were analyzed for respiratory viruses and bacteria...
October 19, 2020: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Anna Dahlman-Höglund, Eva Andersson
After observing several clinical patients with respiratory symptoms, we initiated a questionnaire survey to assess prevalence of and predictors for asthma and work-related symptoms among workers in fish processing plants. A questionnaire with items on work conditions, work-related symptoms, and respiratory symptoms/diseases was sent to 916 fish processing workers, the 1836 licenced fishermen in Sweden, and 1965 controls; of those, 43%, 57%, and 53%, respectively, responded. Risks, hazard ratios (HRs), and prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated with Cox regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed...
October 22, 2020: Journal of Agromedicine
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