Ingvild Bruun Mikalsen, Thomas Halvorsen, Petur Benedikt Juliusson, Maria Magnus, Wenche Nystad, Trine Stensrud, Ketil Størdal, Maria Vollsæter, Knut Øymar
Low birthweight and being born small-for-gestational age (SGA) are linked to asthma and impaired lung function. Particularly, poor intrauterine growth followed by rapid catch-up growth during childhood may predispose for respiratory disease. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is an essential feature of asthma, but how foetal and early childhood growth are associated with BHR is less studied. Our hypothesis was that children born SGA or with accelerated early life growth have increased BHR and altered lung function at 11-years of age...
January 8, 2021: Respiratory Medicine
Ke Deng, Xin Zhang, Ying Liu, Li Zhang, Gang Wang, Min Feng, Brian G Oliver, Lei Wang, Philip M Hansbro, Lin Qin, Min Xie, Zhi Hong Chen, Jodie Simpson, Jie Zhang, Wei Min Li, Gang Wang, Peter Gerard Gibson
BACKGROUND: Asthma, a heterogeneous disease, can be divided into four inflammatory phenotypes using induced sputum cell counts -eosinophilic asthma (EA), neutrophilic asthma (NA), mixed granulocytic asthma (MGA), and paucigranulocytic asthma (PGA). While research has focused on EA and NA, there is little known on PGA. OBJECTIVE: To study the heterogeneity of PGA, and identify possible PGA clusters to guide clinical treatment. METHODS: Patients with PGA were grouped by hierarchical cluster analysis, and enrolled into a prospective cohort study to validate the clusters, relative to future risk of asthma exacerbations in a real-world setting...
January 19, 2021: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Archana Ramireddy, Harpriya Chugh, Kyndaron Reinier, Audrey Uy-Evanado, Eric C Stecker, Jonathan Jui, Sumeet S Chugh
BACKGROUND: In the absence of apparent triggers, sudden cardiac death (SCD) during nighttime hours is a perplexing and devastating phenomenon. There are few published reports in the general population with insufficient numbers to perform sex-specific analyses. Smaller studies of rare nocturnal SCD syndromes suggest a male predominance and implicate sleep-disordered breathing. OBJECTIVE: To identify mechanisms of nighttime SCD in the general population. METHODS: From the population-based Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study, we evaluated SCD cases that occurred in the community between 10 PM and 6 AM (nighttime) and compared them with daytime cases...
January 19, 2021: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Ashish Bansal, Eric L Simpson, Amy S Paller, Elaine C Siegfried, Andrew Blauvelt, Marjolein de Bruin-Weller, Jonathan Corren, Lawrence Sher, Emma Guttman-Yassky, Zhen Chen, Nadia Daizadeh, Mohamed A Kamal, Brad Shumel, Paola Mina-Osorio, Leda Mannent, Naimish Patel, Neil M H Graham, Faisal A Khokhar, Marius Ardeleanu
BACKGROUND: Conjunctivitis is a known comorbidity of atopic dermatitis. Dupilumab clinical trials for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in adults showed a higher conjunctivitis incidence for dupilumab-treated patients than placebo-treated patients, whereas trials for uncontrolled asthma reported lower rates for both dupilumab and placebo. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of conjunctivitis in dupilumab clinical trials in adolescents with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis or uncontrolled asthma...
January 22, 2021: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
María Jesús Ballart, Hugo Monrroy, Mirentxu Iruretagoyena, Alejandra Parada, Javiera Torres, Alberto Espino
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease, induced by food allergens, clinically characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Pathologically there is a predominant eosinophilic inflammation. This disease is relatively new, and its definitions have evolved over time. Its prevalence and incidence are increasing and causes clinical problems both in children and adults. Its symptoms include food impaction, dysphagia, symptoms that resemble gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, and vomiting...
June 2020: Revista Médica de Chile
Philippe A Eigenmann, Motohiro Ebisawa, Matthew Greenhawt, Jonathan O'B Hourihane, Tamara T Perry, Benjamin C Remington, Robert A Wood
Risk is a concept inherent in every medical procedure. It can be defined as the probability of an adverse event in a defined population over a specified period of time. In the frame of food allergy management, it might be related to a diagnostic procedure, a treatment, or the consumption of foods. The risk of an adverse event can also be augmented by individual factors. This rostrum article discusses various aspects faced by children with food allergies in the light of risk, and their practical implications...
January 21, 2021: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Bing Han, Yan-Yan Zhang, Ze-Qing Ye, Yun Xiao, Javad Rasouli, Wen-Cheng Wu, Su-Min Ye, Xin-Yue Guo, Lin Zhu, Abdolmohamad Rostami, Li-Bin Wang, Yuan Zhang, Xing Li
Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist that is known to prevent allergic rhinitis and asthma. Blocking the Cysteinyl leukotrienes receptor (CysLTR1), one of the primary receptors of leukotrienes, has been demonstrated to be efficacious in ameliorating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), through disrupting chemotaxis of infiltrating T cells. However, the role of CysLTR1 in the pathogenesis of MS is not well understood. Here, we show that MS patients had higher expression of CysLTR1 in the circulation and central nervous system (CNS)...
January 22, 2021: Immunology
John Paul Oliveria, Rita Agayby, Gail M Gauvreau
Allergic asthma is triggered by inhalation of environmental allergens resulting in bronchial constriction and inflammation, which leads to clinical symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and difficulty breathing. Asthmatic airway inflammation is initiated by inflammatory mediators released by granulocytic cells. However, the immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody is necessary for the initiation of the allergic cascade, and IgE is produced and released exclusively by memory B cells and plasma cells. Acute allergen exposure has also been shown to increase IgE levels in the airways of patients diagnosed with allergic asthma; however, more studies are needed to understand local airway inflammation...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Steven K Lundy, Sophina H Taitano, Luciën E P M van der Vlugt
B lymphocytes make several contributions to immune regulation including production of antibodies with regulatory properties, release of immune suppressive cytokines, and expression of death-inducing ligands. A role for Fas ligand (FasL)-expressing "killer" B cells in regulating T helper (TH ) cell survival and chronic inflammation has been demonstrated in animal models of schistosome worm and other infections, asthma, autoimmune arthritis, and type 1 diabetes. FasL+ B cells were also capable of inducing immune tolerance in a male-to-female transplantation model...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Seyed Vahid Razavi-Termeh, Abolghasem Sadeghi-Niaraki, Soo-Mi Choi
Nowadays, owing to population growth, increasing environmental pollution, and lifestyle changes, the number of asthmatics has significantly increased. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to determine the asthma-prone areas in Tehran, Iran considering environmental, spatial factors. Initially, we built a spatial database using 872 locations of children with asthma and 13 environmental factors affecting the disease-distance to parks and streets, rainfall, temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed, particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2...
January 21, 2021: Scientific Reports
Velda X Han, Shrujna Patel, Hannah F Jones, Timothy C Nielsen, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Markus J Hofer, Wendy Gold, Fabienne Brilot, Samantha J Lain, Natasha Nassar, Russell C Dale
Inflammation is increasingly recognized as a cause or consequence of common problems of humanity including obesity, stress, depression, pollution and disease states such as autoimmunity, asthma, and infection. Maternal immune activation (MIA), triggered by both acute and systemic chronic inflammation, is hypothesized to be one of the mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Although there is substantial preclinical evidence to support the MIA hypothesis, the human evidence is disparate...
January 21, 2021: Translational Psychiatry
Tom Ruffles, Christina J Jones, Colin Palmer, Steve Turner, Jonathan Grigg, Roger Tavendale, Fiona Hogarth, Petra Rauchhaus, Kristina Pilvinyte, Romanie Hannah, Helen Smith, Roberta Littleford, Brian Lipworth, Somnath Mukhopadhyay
INTRODUCTION: The A allele of rs1042713 (Arg16 amino acid) in the beta-2 (β2) adrenoreceptor is associated with poor response to long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) in young people with asthma. Our aim was to assess whether the prescribing of second line controller with LABA or a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) according to Arg16Gly genotype would result in improvements in pediatric asthma-related quality of life questionnaire (PAQLQ). METHODS: We performed a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) via a primary care clinical research network covering England and Scotland...
January 21, 2021: European Respiratory Journal
Martin Rune Hassan Hansen, Erik Jørs, Annelli Sandbæk, Daniel Sekabojja, John C Ssempebwa, Ruth Mubeezi, Philipp Staudacher, Samuel Fuhrimann, Torben Sigsgaard, Alex Burdorf, Bo Martin Bibby, Vivi Schlünssen
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Exposure to some insecticides may cause airway obstruction, but existing evidence is limited by cross-sectional designs and inadequate confounder control. We investigated the relation between organophosphate and carbamate insecticides and pulmonary function in a prospective study accounting for important confounders. METHODS: In a cohort of 364 smallholder farmers in Uganda (69% women), participants underwent pre-bronchodilator spirometry at baseline (September/October 2018) and at two follow-up visits (November/December 2018 and January/February 2019)...
January 21, 2021: Thorax
Sarah Rylance, Beatrice Chinoko, Bright Mnesa, Chris Jewell, Jonathan Grigg, Kevin Mortimer
BACKGROUND: Shortages of clinical staff make chronic asthma care challenging in low-income countries. We evaluated an outpatient asthma care package for children, including task-shifting of asthma management roles. METHODS: We conducted a non-blinded individually randomised controlled trial at a tertiary-level government hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Children aged 6-15 years diagnosed with asthma were recruited from outpatient clinic, stratified by Childhood Asthma Control Test (cACT) score and allocated 1:1 from a concealed file, accessed during electronic questionnaire completion...
January 21, 2021: Thorax
Kelly Weiss, Nicholas Wanner, Kimberly Queisser, Matthew Frimel, Tina Nunn, Timothy Myshrall, Naseer Sangwan, Serpil Erzurum, Kewal Asosingh
Allergic airway disease models use laboratory mice housed in highly controlled and hygienic environments, which provide a barrier between the mice and a predetermined list of specific pathogens excluded from the facility. In this study, we hypothesized that differences in facility barrier level and, consequently, the hygienic quality of the environment that mice inhabit impact the severity of pulmonary inflammation and lung function. Allergen-naive animals housed in the cleaner, high barrier (HB) specific pathogen-free facility had increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and higher infiltration of immune cells in the lung tissue but not in the bronchoalveolar lavage compared with mice housed in the less hygienic, low barrier specific pathogen-free facility...
January 21, 2021: ImmunoHorizons
Raquel Tarancón, Elena Mata, Santiago Uranga, Ana Belén Gómez, Dessislava Marinova, Isabel Otal, Carlos Martín, Nacho Aguiló
BACKGROUND: Substantial recent advances in the comprehension of the molecular and cellular mechanisms behind asthma have evidenced the importance of the lung immune environment for disease outcome, making modulation of local immune responses an attractive therapeutic target against this pathology. Live attenuated mycobacteria, such as the tuberculosis vaccine BCG, have been classically linked with a type 1 response, and proposed as possible modulators of the type 2 response usually associated with asthma...
December 23, 2020: EBioMedicine
Sonia Herrero Martín, Javier Hueto Pérez de Heredia, Alberto Cuesta Remón, Marisol Gómez Fernández, María M Antón, Juan Cabasés, Ruth García Rey, Pilar Cebollero Rivas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 10, 2020: Archivos de Bronconeumología
Markus Braun, Doris Klingelhöfer, David A Groneberg
In the middle of the twentieth century, the from North America sooty bark disease (SBD) of maples was first discovered in England and has spread in the last decades in Central Europe, in particular. The trigger of SBD is the mould fungus Cryptostroma (C.) corticale. The most common infested maple is the sycamore, Acer pseudoplatanus, a common tree in woods and parks. The disease is characterised by peeling of the outer layer of the bark and brownish-black spores under the peeled off bark. These spores can cause maple bark disease (MBD) in humans, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) with similar symptoms like COPD, allergic asthma, influenza or flu-like infections and interstitial pneumonia...
January 21, 2021: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
Laura Tamasauskiene, Vilte Marija Gintauskiene, Daina Bastyte, Brigita Sitkauskiene
BACKGROUND: Persistent allergic airway diseases cause a great burden worldwide. Their pathogenesis is not clear enough. There is evidence that one of the recently described cytokine interleukin (IL) 22 may be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Scientists argue if this cytokine acts as proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to investigate IL-22 level in patients with persistent allergic airway diseases caused by house dust mite (HDM) in comparison with healthy individuals and to evaluate its relationship with IL-13 and IL-10 level, symptoms score and quality of life...
January 21, 2021: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Carlos Martínez-Rivera, Ignasi Garcia-Olivé, Blanca Urrutia-Royo, Maria Basagaña-Torrento, Antoni Rosell, Jorge Abad
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a disease that is associated with severe uncontrolled eosinophilic asthma. Eosinophils play an important pathogenic role in the development of both diseases. Benralizumab is an antieosinophilic monoclonal antibody that binds to the α subunit of the human interleukin 5 receptor that is expressed on the surface of the eosinophil and basophil. We present the first case of rapid improvement in symptoms and lung function during admission for exacerbation of a severe eosinophilic asthma associated with EGPA...
January 21, 2021: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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