Alexander H Hogan, Michael Brimacombe, Maua Mosha, Glenn Flores
OBJECTIVE: To identify and contrast risk factors for six-month pediatric asthma readmissions using traditional models (Cox proportional-hazards and logistic regression) and artificial neural-network modeling. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study of the 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database included children 5-18 years old with a primary diagnosis of asthma. The primary outcome was time to asthma readmission in the Cox model, and readmission within 180 days in logistic regression...
July 27, 2021: Academic Pediatrics
Roland Buhl, Ivan Nikolaev, Hanns-Christian Tillmann, Soniya Vaidya, Christian Bartels, Monish Jain, Juergen Jauernig, Huib A M Kerstjens
Once-daily (o.d.) fixed-dose combinations of mometasone furoate/indacaterol acetate and mometasone furoate/indacaterol acetate/glycopyrronium bromide, both delivered via the Breezhaler® device, are approved for the maintenance treatment of asthma. Across these fixed-dose combinations, while the doses of bronchodilators remain the same, the nominal doses of mometasone furoate in micrograms differ. This article presents the steps followed in bridging the mometasone furoate doses at the corresponding dose strengths in the mometasone furoate formulation delivered via the Twisthaler® and mometasone furoate/indacaterol acetate and mometasone furoate/indacaterol acetate/glycopyrronium bromide formulations delivered via the Breezhaler®...
July 27, 2021: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Christopher C Butler, Ly-Mee Yu, Jienchi Dorward, Oghenekome Gbinigie, Gail Hayward, Benjamin R Saville, Oliver Van Hecke, Nicholas Berry, Michelle A Detry, Christina Saunders, Mark Fitzgerald, Victoria Harris, Ratko Djukanovic, Stephan Gadola, John Kirkpatrick, Simon de Lusignan, Emma Ogburn, Philip H Evans, Nicholas P B Thomas, Mahendra G Patel, F D Richard Hobbs
BACKGROUND: Doxycycline is often used for treating COVID-19 respiratory symptoms in the community despite an absence of evidence from clinical trials to support its use. We aimed to assess the efficacy of doxycycline to treat suspected COVID-19 in the community among people at high risk of adverse outcomes. METHODS: We did a national, open-label, multi-arm, adaptive platform randomised trial of interventions against COVID-19 in older people (PRINCIPLE) across primary care centres in the UK...
July 27, 2021: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Eisuke Inage, Yuko Tanaka, Kotoko Matsui, Hiromichi Yamada, Mayuki Kojima, Shun Toriumi, Takahiro Kudo, Yosuke Baba, Toshiaki Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Inclusion of female authors has been noted as potentially beneficial in the development of medical guidelines. Japanese professional committees representing allergic subspecialties develop practical guidelines with recommendations to caregivers, but these committees may be influenced by their gender composition. The objective of our study was to examine the influence of gender in developing pediatric allergic disease guidelines in Japan from 1999 to 2020. METHODS: We examined the gender differences among the guideline committee members: allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, and food allergies in Japan...
July 30, 2021: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Micaela Sandoval, Duc T Nguyen, Farhaan S Vahidy, Edward A Graviss
BACKGROUND: Since February 2020, over 2.5 million Texans have been diagnosed with COVID-19, and 20% are young adults at risk for SARS-CoV-2 exposure at work, academic, and social settings. This study investigated demographic and clinical risk factors for severe disease and readmission among young adults 18-29 years old, who were diagnosed at a hospital encounter in Houston, Texas, USA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A retrospective registry-based chart review was conducted investigating demographic and clinical risk factors for severe COVID-19 among patients aged 18-29 with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests within a large metropolitan healthcare system in Houston, Texas, USA...
2021: PloS One
Xiujuan Yao, Xiangdong Wang, Xiaofang Liu, Luo Zhang
INTRODUCTION: IL-25 is a T helper (Th) type -2 cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Fibrocytes are progenitor cells that can migrate into circulation and inflamed bronchial epithelium. OBJECTIVES: We aim to test the hypothesis that circulating fibrocytes may be the novel cellular targets of IL-25 and the recruitment of IL-25R+ circulating fibrocytes may correlate with asthmatic airway obstruction. METHODS: By using flow cytometry analysis, IL-25R+ fibrocytes (i...
July 30, 2021: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Pinar Uysal, Ayse Anik, Ahmet Anik
Background: The lung functions of children with obese asthma seem to be distinct from those of obese children or lean asthmatics. Aim: To measure baseline lung function, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in school-age obese asthmatics (OA group) and to compare the data with obese children (O group), lean asthmatics (A group), and healthy controls (H group). Methods: One hundred seventy school-age children were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. Baseline fractionated exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and baseline, post-exercise (post-E), and post-bronchodilation (post-BD) impulse oscillometry (IOS) and spirometry tests were performed...
July 30, 2021: Journal of Asthma
Konstantinos Katsoulis, Maria Kipourou, Stelios Loukides
INTRODUCTION: Eosinophils play a central role in the inflammation of asthma and are the target of new biologic treatments for patients with severe asthma. Biologics targeting the IL-5 pathway have been shown to reduce asthma exacerbations, improve lung function, reduce oral corticosteroid use, and improve quality of life, accompanied by reduced or even eliminated blood eosinophils. Eosinophils have been associated with host protection and tumor growth, raising potential concerns about the consequences of these long-term therapies that reduce or eliminate them...
July 30, 2021: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Janet Rodríguez-Torres, Laura López-López, Irene Cabrera-Martos, Irene Torres-Sánchez, Esther Prados-Román, Araceli Ortíz-Rubio, Marie C Valenza
INTRODUCTION: Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, dyspnea, chest tightness and cough. In addition to respiratory symptoms, previous studies have reported the presence of pain. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the nociceptive processing of young adults with well-controlled asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional case-control study was performed. Patients diagnosed with persistent well-controlled asthma were recruited from the "Complejo Hospitalario Universitario" (Granada)...
July 30, 2021: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Yi Chai, Hao Luo, Paul S F Yip
Background: A history of self-harm is strongly associated with future self-harm attempts. Large-scale Asian cohort studies examining risk factors for repeated self-harm are lacking. This paper reports on annual prevalence, cumulative risk, annual risk of non-fatal self-harm repetition, and risk factors among Hong Kong patients with a history of self-harm. Methods: The Hong Kong Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System (CDARS) provided all accident & emergency department and inpatient self-harm records between Jan 1, 2002 and Dec 31, 2016...
September 2020: The Lancet Regional Health. Western Pacific
Mohammad Shahidul Islam, Samin Huq, Salahuddin Ahmed, Sudipto Roy, Jürgen Schwarze, Aziz Sheikh, Samir K Saha, Steve Cunningham, Harish Nair
Background: Researchers use different definitions to identify children with asthma in epidemiological surveys. We conducted a systematic review to describe the definitions used in epidemiologic studies for wheeze and asthma in the paediatric population, aimed to inform the development of a uniform definition of paediatric asthma for future epidemiological research. Methods: We systematically searched terms to identify asthma and/or wheeze among children aged <13 years and published between 1995-2020 across seven databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health, AMED, LILACS and CINAHL)...
2021: Journal of Global Health
Haixiu Yang, Fan Tong, Changlu Qi, Ping Wang, Jiangyu Li, Liang Cheng
Many microbes are parasitic within the human body, engaging in various physiological processes and playing an important role in human diseases. The discovery of new microbe-disease associations aids our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Computational methods can be applied in such investigations, thereby avoiding the time-consuming and laborious nature of experimental methods. In this study, we constructed a comprehensive microbe-disease network by integrating known microbe-disease associations from three large-scale databases (Peryton, Disbiome, and gutMDisorder), and extended the random walk with restart to the network for prioritizing unknown microbe-disease associations...
2021: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nadzeya Marozkina, Laura Smith, Yi Zhao, Joe Zein, James F Chmiel, Jeeho Kim, Janna Kiselar, Michael D Davis, Rebekah S Cunningham, Scott H Randell, Benjamin Gaston
Endothelial hemoglobin (Hb)α regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) biochemistry. We hypothesized that Hb could also be expressed and biochemically active in the ciliated human airway epithelium. Primary human airway epithelial cells, cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI), were obtained by clinical airway brushings or from explanted lungs. Human airway Hb mRNA data were from publically available databases; or from RT-PCR. Hb proteins were identified by immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry...
July 29, 2021: Scientific Reports
Markus Weckmann, Thomas Bahmer, Jannie Marie Bülow Sand, Sarah Rank Rønnow, Martin Pech, Cornelis Vermeulen, Alen Faiz, Diana Julie Leeming, Morten Asser Karsdal, Lars Lunding, Brian George G Oliver, Michael Wegmann, Gudrun Ulrich-Merzenich, Uwe R Juergens, Jannis Duhn, Yves Laumonnier, Olga Danov, Katherina Sewald, Ulrich Zissler, Marnix Jonker, Inke König, Gesine Hansen, Erika von Mutius, Oliver Fuchs, Anna-Maria Dittrich, Bianca Schaub, Christine Happle, Klaus F Rabe, Maarten van de Berge, Janette Kay Burgess, Matthias Volkmar Kopp
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome substantiating the urgent requirement for endotype-specific biomarkers. Dysbalance of fibrosis and fibrolysis in asthmatic lung tissue leads to reduced levels of the inflammation-protective collagen 4 (COL4A3). OBJECTIVE: To delineate the degradation of COL4A3 in allergic airway inflammation and evaluate the resultant product as a biomarker for anti-IgE therapy response. METHODS: The serological COL4A3 degradation marker C4Ma3 (Nordic Bioscience, Denmark) and serum cytokines were measured in the ALLIANCE cohort (pediatric cases/controls: 134/35; adult cases/controls: 149/31)...
July 29, 2021: European Respiratory Journal
Luke Nessan Carson, Ashish Pradhan, Deepak Subramanian
Omalizumab is an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody used in severe allergic asthma. Herein, we describe a case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, which manifested 3 months after initiation of omalizumab therapy, while maintenance corticosteroid therapy dose was unchanged.
July 29, 2021: BMJ Case Reports
Saikat Mitra, Shajuthi Rahman Prova, Sifat Ara Sultana, Rajib Das, Firzan Nainu, Talha Bin Emran, Abu Montakim Tareq, Md Sahab Uddin, Ali M Alqahtani, Kuldeep Dhama, Jesus Simal-Gandara
BACKGROUND: Indole alkaloids are very promising for potential therapeutic purposes and appear to be particularly effective against respiratory diseases. Several experimental studies have been performed, both in vivo and in vitro, to evaluate the effectiveness of indole alkaloids for the management of respiratory disorders, including asthma, emphysema, tuberculosis, cancer, and pulmonary fibrosis. PURPOSE: The fundamental objective of this review was to summarize the in-depth therapeutic potential of indole alkaloids against various respiratory disorders...
July 15, 2021: Phytomedicine
Akin Abayomi, Akin Osibogun, Oluchi Kanma-Okafor, Jide Idris, Abimbola Bowale, Ololade Wright, Bisola Adebayo, Mobolanle Balogun, Segun Ogboye, Remi Adeseun, Ismael Abdus-Salam, Bamidele Mutiu, Babatunde Saka, Dayo Lajide, Sam Yenyi, Rotimi Agbolagorite, Oluwatosin Onasanya, Eniola Erinosho, Joshua Obasanya, Olu Adejumo, Sunday Adesola, Yewande Oshodi, Iorhen E Akase, Shina Ogunbiyi, Adenike Omosun, Femi Erinoso, Hussein Abdur-Razzaq, Nike Osa, Kingsley Akinroye
BACKGROUND: The current pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown epidemiological and clinical characteristics that appear worsened in hypertensive patients. The morbidity and mortality of the disease among hypertensive patients in Africa have yet to be well described. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study all confirmed COVID-19 adult patients (≥18 years of age) in Lagos between February 27 to July 62,020 were included...
July 29, 2021: Global Health Research and Policy
Babak Aberumand, Samira Jeimy
BACKGROUND: Insulin hypersensitivity is rare, but challenging for individuals with diabetes. The prevalence of insulin allergy has decreased since the introduction of human recombinant insulin preparations. Hypersensitivity reactions range from injection site erythema and swelling, to anaphylaxis. While some reactions are to excipients (zinc, protamine, metacresol), many are to recombinant insulin itself. We present a case of type 1 hypersensitivity to various preparations of insulin in a patient with insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
July 29, 2021: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
George P Drewett, Ana Copaescu, Joseph DeLuca, Natasha E Holmes, Jason A Trubiano
Allergic reaction to liposomal amphotericin B is rare. We report a case of cardiac arrest in a 64-year-old woman following liposomal amphotericin B infusion, requiring resuscitation. We also present the results of subsequent skin prick and intradermal testing to liposomal amphotericin on the patient and three healthy controls, highlighting the need for further research into the immunopathogenesis of this reaction.
July 29, 2021: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Derek Werthmann, Felicia A Rabito, Charlie Reed
BACKGROUND: Cockroach allergen is one of the most important asthma triggers for children. There is an extensive body of research on interventions to reduce exposure. However, adherence to these interventions is low. Insight into the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) associated with cockroach remediation is needed. We assessed KAP using the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) as a framework for predicting behavior. This study aimed to assess the socio-demographic and psycho-social characteristics associated with cockroach KAP and to quantify the relationship between KAP and number of cockroaches in the home...
July 29, 2021: BMC Public Health
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