Zijing Zhou, Aiyuan Zhou, Yating Peng, Jiaxi Duan, Yuqin Zeng, Yiyang Zhao, Wei Cheng, Ping Chen
BACKGROUND: The Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) has been suggested by the Global Initiative of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as a comprehensive symptom measurement tool, which helps to classify patients in order to direct pharmacological treatment. Therefore, it is essential to understand its determinants. OBJECTIVES: To identify the determinants of the overall CCQ score and scores of its 3 subdomains among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients from China...
July 13, 2020: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Emily A Gardner, Barbara M Kaplan, Pamela Collins, Hatice Zahran
Asthma remains a significant health problem in the United States. Adults with poorly controlled asthma can affect their community in a number of ways, from lost productivity in the workplace to health care costs to premature death. Asthma self-management education helps individuals achieve better control of their asthma and is critical for the overall health and well-being of individuals with asthma. While there are numerous programs and initiatives targeting children with asthma, there is a lack of comparable focus on the needs of adults with asthma...
July 13, 2020: Health Promotion Practice
Zhixuan Loh, Jennifer Simpson, Ashik Ullah, Vivian Zhang, Wan J Gan, Jason P Lynch, Rhiannon B Werder, Al Amin Sikder, Katie Lane, Choon Boon Sim, Enzo Porrello, Stuart B Mazzone, Peter D Sly, Raymond J Steptoe, Kirsten M Spann, Maria B Sukkar, John W Upham, Simon Phipps
Type-2 immunity elicits tissue repair and homeostasis, however dysregulated type-2 responses cause aberrant tissue remodelling, as observed in asthma. Severe respiratory viral infections in infancy predispose to later asthma, however, the processes that mediate tissue damage-induced type-2 inflammation and the origins of airway remodelling remain ill-defined. Here, using a preclinical mouse model of viral bronchiolitis, we find that increased epithelial and mesenchymal high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression is associated with increased numbers of IL-13-producing type-2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2s) and the expansion of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) layer...
July 13, 2020: PLoS Pathogens
Eduardo Garcia-Pachon, Lucia Zamora-Molina, Maria J Soler-Sempere, Carlos Baeza-Martinez, Justo Grau-Delgado, Vicente Canto-Reig, Antonio Ramon-Sanchez, Isabel Padilla-Navas, Montserrat Ruiz-Garcia, Nieves Gonzalo-Jimenez
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of asthma in patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 has been studied and varies widely in the different series. However, the prevalence in SARS-infected patients not requiring hospitalization is not known. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of asthma in a consecutive series of patients who tested positive in the RT-PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2 and did not require hospital admission. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 218 patients (58% of those who tested positive) did not require hospitalization; they had a median age of 45 years (IQR 34-57) and 57% were female...
July 4, 2020: Respiratory Medicine
Jose A Castro-Rodriguez, Mauricio A Pincheira, Diana P Escobar-Serna, Monica P Sossa-Briceño, Carlos E Rodriguez-Martinez
International guidelines have recommended the use of inhaled beta-2 agonists and systemic corticosteroids (SCs) as the first-line treatment for acute asthma. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence for the efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) in addition to SCs compared to SCs alone in children with acute asthma in the ED or during hospitalization. DATA SOURCES: Five electronic databases were searched. STUDY SELECTION: All RCTs that compared ICS (via nebulizer or metered dose inhaler) plus SC (oral or parenteral) with placebo (or standard care) plus SC were included without language restriction...
July 13, 2020: Pediatric Pulmonology
Yasuo Kurata, Shota Muraki, Yushi Kashihara, Takeshi Hirota, Hiroshi Araki, Ichiro Ieiri
BACKGROUND: Theophylline, a xanthine derivative drug, is used for the treatment of respiratory diseases, such as asthma, and is primarily eliminated by hepatic metabolism. There is marked interindividual variability in theophylline clearance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chronic hepatitis (CH), liver cirrhosis (LC), and other covariates on theophylline clearance by population pharmacokinetic (PPK) analysis. METHODS: The authors retrospectively obtained 496 trough concentrations of theophylline at steady-state from 226 adult patients with bronchial asthma...
July 8, 2020: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Midori Iida, Michio Iwata, Yoshihiro Yamanishi
MOTIVATION: Disease states are distinguished from each other in terms of differing clinical phenotypes, but characteristic molecular features are often common to various diseases. Similarities between diseases can be explained by characteristic gene expression patterns. However, most disease-disease relationships remain uncharacterized. RESULTS: In this study, we proposed a novel approach for network-based characterization of disease-disease relationships in terms of drugs and therapeutic targets...
July 1, 2020: Bioinformatics
Nathan Rabinovitch, Meaghan J Jones, Nicole Gladish, Anna V Faino, Matthew Strand, Alexander M Morin, Julie MacIsaac, David T S Lin, Paul R Reynolds, Amrit Singh, Erwin W Gelfand, Michael S Kobor, Christopher Carlsten
Air pollution is associated with early declines in lung function and increased levels of asthma-related cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT) but a biological pathway linking this rapid response has not been delineated. In this randomized controlled diesel exhaust (DE) challenge study of 16 adult asthmatics, increased exposure-attributable urinary leukotriene E4 (uLTE4, a biomarker of cysteinyl leukotriene production) was correlated (p = 0.04) with declines in forced expiratory volume in 1-second (FEV1 ) within 6 hours of exposure...
July 12, 2020: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Idir Ramdani, Karen A Pescatore, Belaid Bouazza
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive chronic inflammatory disease and the third cause of death worldwide in 2016. COPD epidemiology is well documented in high-income countries where the disease is well managed. However, the disease is neglected in low-income countries and there is lack of data. Our study aims to identify COPD patients' characteristics and hospital admission causes, and to determine disease etiologies and associated factors. A retrospective study was conducted in COPD Algerian patients using medical record data collected from January 2007 to May 2017 at the pulmonology department of the Belloua Hospital of Tizi-Ouzou city...
July 10, 2020: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease
Pauline Azzano, Élise Dufresne, Thomas Poder, Philippe Bégin
The advent of biologic therapies has transformed care for severe atopic disorders but their high cost poses new challenges with regards to long-term sustainability and fair allocation of resources. This article covers the basic concepts of cost-utility analyses and reviews the available literature on cost-utility of biologic drugs in atopic disorders. When used within their limits as part of a multi-dimensional assessment, economic analyses can be extremely useful to guide decision-making and prioritization of care...
July 13, 2020: Allergy
Garrett Baird, Chris Farrell, Jason Cheung, Andrew Semple, Jeffery Blue, Patrick L Ahl
The temperature-dependent secondary structure of two monoclonal IgG antibodies, anti-IGF1R and anti-TSLP, were examined by transmission mode Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Anti-IGF1R and anti-TSLP are IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against human Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor for anti-tumor activity and Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin cytokine for anti-asthma activity, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) clearly indicates both antibodies in their base formulations have a lower temperature protein conformational change near 70 °C (Tm1 ) and a higher temperature protein conformational change near 85 °C (Tm2 )...
July 12, 2020: Protein Journal
Hannah Sneller, Kaitlin Keenan, Eric Hoppa
Introduction: Timely administration of corticosteroids improves asthma care in the pediatric emergency department (ED). Using the Model for Improvement, we aimed to decrease time to delivery of corticosteroids in patients presenting to the ED with an acute asthma exacerbation. Methods: This is a single-center, prospective, multidisciplinary quality improvement (QI) project targeting ED patients 1-18 years of age with an acute asthma exacerbation. We collected 5 months of baseline data from the arrival time of an ED patient with an asthma exacerbation with a Modified Pulmonary Index Score ≥5 to the time of administration of corticosteroids...
May 2020: Pediatric Quality & Safety
Guillaume L Erny, Ricardo A Gomes, Mónica S F Santos, Lúcia Santos, Nuno Neuparth, Pedro Carreiro-Martins, João Gaspar Marques, Ana C L Guerreiro, Patrícia Gomes-Alves
Separation techniques hyphenated to high-resolution mass spectrometry are essential in untargeted metabolomic analyses. Due to the complexity and size of the resulting data, analysts rely on computer-assisted tools to mine for features that may represent a chromatographic signal. However, this step remains problematic, and a high number of false positives are often obtained. This work reports a novel approach where each step is carefully controlled to decrease the likelihood of errors. Datasets are first corrected for baseline drift and background noise before the MS scans are converted from profile to centroid...
July 7, 2020: ACS Omega
James Metz, Rebekah Burns
Introduction: Childhood asthma is a major source of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Successful management requires a broad spectrum of skills. Given the prevalence, medical students should be proficient in evaluating and managing asthma, including the acute treatment of an exacerbation through the maintenance phase. Methods: We used a high-fidelity simulation case of a 2-year-old boy presenting to the emergency room in respiratory distress to let medical students practice the assessment and management of a patient in status asthmaticus...
May 29, 2020: MedEdPORTAL Publications
Khadijah A AlShatti, Ali H Ziyab
Background: Findings on the associations between household pet-keeping and allergic diseases, including asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, have been contradictory, with investigations reporting positive, negative, and null associations. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of pet-keeping among families in Kuwait and to assess the associations between pet-keeping and symptoms of allergic diseases among adolescents. Methods: Schoolchildren aged 11-14 years ( n = 3,864) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Robert W Morton, Heather E Elphick, Vanessa Craven, Michael D Shields, Lesley Kennedy
In order for inhaled corticosteroids to be delivered adequately to the airways they require patients to take them regularly using an effective technique. Patients often have a poor inhaler technique, and this has been shown to result in sub-optimal asthma control. It is important for all clinicians prescribing inhaled medication to be experienced in the correct technique, and take time to train children so that they have mastered corrected inhaler technique. Using Teach to Goal or teach back methodology is a simple and effective way to provide this in the clinic setting...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Mohammed Alhoobi, Fatma Abu-Qadous, Mohsin Khan, Ahmed Shaaban, Nissar Shaikh, Firas Hammadi, Raed Abu-Jarir, Walid Albanna, Ghaya Alrumaihi, Sirajelddin Belkhair, Arun R Babu, Ali Ayyad
Objectives: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with negative angiographic findings has a heterogeneous nature with variations in clinical course and outcome as compared to the aneurysmal SAH. It makes up to 15% of the spontaneous SAH and is characterized by milder clinical presentation. The purpose of this study was the analyses of risk factors, clinical observations, radiologic characteristics, and outcome in patients with nonaneurysmal SAH (NA-SAH). Patients and Methods: In a retrospective design, 77 consecutive patients with NA-SAH were recruited from May 2008, to October 2018...
April 2020: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Hyung Jin Kim, YunJae Jung
Eosinophils are terminally differentiated cytotoxic effector cells that have a role in parasitic infections and allergy by releasing their granule-derived cytotoxic proteins. However, an increasing number of recent observations indicate that eosinophils are not only associated with the pathogenesis of a wide range of diseases, but also contribute to the maintenance of homeostatic responses in previously underappreciated diverse tissues, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and adipose tissue. In this review, we describe biological characteristics of eosinophils, as their developmental properties, permissive proliferation and survival, degranulation activity, and migration properties enable them to distribute to both homeostatic and inflamed tissues...
June 2020: Immune Network
Yun Niu, Li Zhou, Lijun Meng, Sitan Chen, Changyang Ma, Zhenhua Liu, Wenyi Kang
Seeds of the genus Nigella plants as folk medicine are often used to prevent and treat asthma, diarrhea, dyslipidemia, and other diseases around the world. Pharmacological researches showed that seed extract and seed oil have antibacterial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and hepatoprotective effects which attributed to their bioactive constituents such as alkaloids, saponins, flavones, and phenols. This paper has covered recent progresses on chemical and pharmacological researches on these plants, including their compounds and pharmacological effects...
2020: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Dai Miyazaki, Kazumi Fukagawa, Shigeki Okamoto, Atsuki Fukushima, Eiichi Uchio, Nobuyuki Ebihara, Jun Shoji, Kenichi Namba, Yumiko Shimizu
The prevalence of ocular allergies has been increasing worldwide for the past several decades. The geographical distribution and hot spots of rhinoconjunctivitis have been documented in a global survey by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). ISAAC indicated that Africa, Latin America, and Japan were notable for their high prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis. The outcomes of follow-up studies of regional differences and the characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis are summarized in this review...
July 9, 2020: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
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