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glucose homeostasis

Vajiheh Khorasani, Sajad Jeddi, Parichehr Yaghmaei, Maryam Tohidi, Asghar Ghasemi
PURPOSE: Anemia is common in patients with type 2 diabetes. This aims at determining long-term effects of nitrate administration on diabetes-induced anemia in obese type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, control + nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes + nitrate. Type 2 diabetes was induced using high-fat diet followed by injection of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg). Sodium nitrate (100 mg/L in drinking water) was administered for six months...
February 14, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Jacqueline L Beaudry, Kiran Deep Kaur, Elodie M Varin, Laurie L Baggio, Xiemin Cao, Erin E Mulvihill, Jennifer H Stern, Jonathan E Campbell, Phillip E Scherer, Daniel J Drucker
OBJECTIVE: Administration of glucagon (GCG) or GCG-containing co-agonists reduces body weight and increases energy expenditure. These actions appear to be transduced by multiple direct and indirect GCG receptor (GCGR)-dependent mechanisms. Although the canonical GCGR is expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) the importance of BAT GCGR activity for the physiological control of body weight, or the response to GCG agonism, has not been defined. METHODS: We studied the mechanisms linking GCG action to acute increases in oxygen consumption using wildtype (WT), Ucp1-/- and Fgf21-/- mice...
February 5, 2019: Molecular Metabolism
Aurèle Besse-Patin, Stewart Jeromson, Philipa Levesque-Damphousse, Blandine Secco, Mathieu Laplante, Jennifer L Estall
Precise modulation of hepatic glucose metabolism is crucial during the fasting and feeding cycle and is controlled by the actions of circulating insulin and glucagon. The insulin-signaling pathway requires insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2, which are found to be dysregulated in diabetes and obesity. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1A) is a fasting-induced transcriptional coactivator. In nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and in patients with type 2 diabetes, low hepatic PGC1A levels are associated with insulin resistance...
February 15, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrea De Gaetano, Claudio Gaz, Simona Panunzi
Published compact and extended models of the glucose-insulin physiologic control system are compared, in order to understand why a specific functional form of the compact model proved to be necessary for a satisfactory representation of acute perturbation experiments such as the Intra Venous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT). A spectrum of IVGTT's of virtual subjects ranging from normal to IFG to IGT to frank T2DM were simulated using an extended model incorporating the population-of-controllers paradigm originally hypothesized by Grodsky, and proven to be able to capture a wide array of experimental results from heterogeneous perturbation procedures...
2019: PloS One
Thais de Castro Barbosa, Petter S Alm, Anna Krook, Romain Barrès, Juleen R Zierath
Paternal preconceptional high-fat diet (HFD) alters whole-body glucose and energy homeostasis over several generations, which may be mediated by altered transcriptomic profiles of metabolic organs. We investigated the effect of paternal HFD on the hepatic transcriptomic and metabolic signatures of female grand-offspring. Paternal HFD strongly impacted the liver transcriptome of the second-generation offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed grandpaternal-HFD altered the TNF-α signaling via NFκB pathway, independent of the grand-offspring's diet...
February 15, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Marion Soto, Weikang Cai, Masahiro Konishi, C Ronald Kahn
Previous studies have shown that insulin and IGF-1 signaling in the brain, especially the hypothalamus, is important for regulation of systemic metabolism. Here, we develop mice in which we have specifically inactivated both insulin receptors (IRs) and IGF-1 receptors (IGF1Rs) in the hippocampus (Hippo-DKO) or central amygdala (CeA-DKO) by stereotaxic delivery of AAV-Cre into IRlox/lox /IGF1Rlox/lox mice. Consequently, both Hippo-DKO and CeA-DKO mice have decreased levels of the GluA1 subunit of glutamate AMPA receptor and display increased anxiety-like behavior, impaired cognition, and metabolic abnormalities, including glucose intolerance...
February 14, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nadia Saderi, Adrián Báez-Ruiz, Lucia E Azuara-Álvarez, Carolina Escobar, Roberto C Salgado-Delgado
The circadian system drives the temporal organization of body physiology in relation to the changing daily environment. Shift-work (SW) disrupts this temporal order and is associated with the loss of homeostasis and metabolic syndrome. In a rodent model of SW based on forced activity in the rest phase for 4 weeks, we describe the occurrence of circadian desynchrony, as well as metabolic and liver dysfunction. To provide better evidence for the impact of altered timing of activity, this study explored how long it takes to recover metabolic rhythms and behavior...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Anna Kurpińska, Joanna Suraj, Emilia Bonar, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Marta Stojak, Magdalena Sternak, Agnieszka Jasztal, Maria Walczak
INTRODUCTION: The tumor-promoting rearrangement of the lungs facilitates the process of cancer cell survival in a foreign microenvironment and enables their protection against immune defense. The study aimed to define the fingerprint of the early rearrangement of the lungs via the proteomic profiling of the lung tissue in the experimental model of tumor metastasis in a murine 4 T1 mammary adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The studies were performed on 7-8-week-old BALB/c female mice...
February 11, 2019: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Piero Ruscitti, Francesco Ursini, Paola Cipriani, Marta Greco, Saverio Alvaro, Liakouli Vasiliki, Paola Di Benedetto, Francesco Carubbi, Onorina Berardicurti, Elio Gulletta, Giovambattista De Sarro, Roberto Giacomelli
Recently, it has been shown that some well-known pathogenic mediators in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), could play a pathogenic role in insulin resistance and (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D).In this 6-month longitudinal study, we aimed at investigating if the inhibition of IL-1 or TNF is associated with an improvement of IR in RA patients with comorbid T2D and the possible effects on selected serum adipokines. RA patients with comorbid T2D were recruited among those undergoing treatment with anakinra (ANA) or with TNF inhibitor (TNFi)...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Xiao-Jiao Jia, Lan-Xiang Liu, Yi-Ming Tian, Rui Wang, Qiang Lu
This study aims to investigate the correlation between oxidative stress and intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in obese young and middle-aged males.The present study included 136 male examinees in the Examination Center of the First Hospital of Qinhuangdao from October 10, 2015 to December 10, 2015. Then, clinical data, oxidative stress indices (8-iso-prostaglandin F2α [8-iso-PGF2α], malondialdehyde [MDA], and superoxide dismutase [SOD]), and IAF area were recorded. All subjects were assigned into 3 groups according to body mass index (BMI): obese group (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m, 43 subjects), overweight group (24 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m, 46 subjects), and control group (BMI < 24 kg/m, 47 subjects)...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Serdar Karakaya, Mustafa Altay, Fatma Kaplan Efe, İbrahim Karadağ, Oktay Ünsal, Oktay Bulur, Murat Eser, Derun Taner Ertuğrul
Background/aim: In this study, our aim was to investigate the neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, variations in leukocytes and leukocyte subtypes, and the relationship between N/L ratio and insulin resistance (IR) in obesity. Materials and methods: Ninety-six patients and 40 healthy controls were included in this study. Patients’ blood glucose levels, insulin levels, and hemogram parameters upon 8 h of fasting were determined. Body mass index (BMI) and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) values were calculated...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Xiaobin Xu, Shijun Fan, Yuanqiao Guo, Ruei Tan, Junyu Zhang, Wenhua Zhang, Bing-Xing Pan, Nobumasa Kato
INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor widely used to manufacture consumer goods. Although the thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting potential of BPA has been thought to be responsible for the neuropsychiatric deficits in the animals that experienced perinatal BPA exposure, the TH availability change at the level of specific brain structures has not been subject to systematic investigation. METHODS: In the present study the impacts of perinatal BPA exposure (0...
February 13, 2019: Brain and Behavior
Shireesh Srivastava, Richard L Veech
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is proposed to maintain thermal homeostasis through dissipation of chemical energy as heat by the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) present in their mitochondria. The recent demonstration of the presence of BAT in humans has invigorated research in this area. The research has provided many new insights into the biology and functioning of this tissue and the biological implications of its altered activities. Another finding of interest is browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) resulting in what is known as beige/brite cells, which have increased mitochondrial proteins and UCPs...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Liwei Ma, Jianwei Wei, Junhu Wan, Weiwei Wang, Li Wang, Yongjie Yuan, Zijun Yang, Xianzhi Liu, Liang Ming
BACKGROUND: Metformin, a first-line drug for type 2 diabetes, could induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the concentration of glucose affects the effect of metformin, especially low glucose in the culture medium can enhance the cytotoxicity of metformin on cancer cells. Since mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum is vital for maintaining cell homeostasis, we speculate that low glucose and metformin-induced cell apoptosis may be associated with mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Dan-Qing Yu, Ping-Ping Lv, Yi-Shang Yan, Guan-Xin Xu, Annapurna Sadhukhan, Shan Dong, Yan Shen, Jun Ren, Xue-Ying Zhang, Chun Feng, Yi-Ting Huang, Shen Tian, Yin Zhou, Yi-Ting Cai, Zhen-Hua Ming, Guo-Lian Ding, Hong Zhu, Jian-Zhong Sheng, Min Jin, He-Feng Huang
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an exclusive tissue of nonshivering thermogenesis. It is fueled by lipids and glucose and involved in energy and metabolic homeostasis. Intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia during gestational diabetes mellitus may result in abnormal fetal development and metabolic phenotypes in adulthood. However, whether intrauterine hyperglycemia influences the development of BAT is unknown. In this study, mouse embryos were exposed to the intrauterine hyperglycemia environment by injecting streptozocin into pregnant mice at 1 d post coitum (dpc)...
February 13, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sandra Korol, Michel White, Eileen O'Meara, Jean-Lucien Rouleau, Brian White-Guay, Marc Dorais, Ali Ahmed, Simon de Denus, Sylvie Perreault
PURPOSE: Some evidence suggests that spironolactone may have a deleterious effect on glucose homeostasis. The objective of this study was to assess whether spironolactone use is associated with a higher risk of developing diabetes in a large cohort of patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS: Two Quebec government administrative databases were used to identify a cohort of hospitalized patients discharged between January 1995 and December 2009 with a primary discharge diagnosis of HF and without secondary discharge diagnosis of diabetes...
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
José Carlos de Lima Júnior, Alexandre Moura-Assis, Riobaldo M Cintra, Thiago Quinaglia, Lício A Velloso, Andrei C Sposito
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of mortality in the contemporary world. The critical role of the endothelial cells (EC) in vascular homeostasis, the metabolic changes that take place when the cell is activated, and the elements involved in these processes have been widely explored over the past years. Obesity and its impact, promoting a rise in blood levels of free fatty acids (FAs) are often associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular mortality. However, the mechanisms that promote cardiovascular structural changes and adaptive changes in the ECs, particularly in the context of obesity, are little known...
January 2019: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Jiayi Huang, Ka H Wong, Stephanie V Tay, Aida Serra, Siu Kuan Sze, James P Tam
Astragalus membranaceus root, Huang Qi in Chinese, is a popular medicinal herb traditionally used to regulate blood glucose. Herein, the identification and characterization of two families of cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs), designated α- and β-astratides, from A. membranaceus roots are reported. Proteomic analysis showed that α-astratide aM1 and β-astratide bM1 belong to two distinct CRP families. The six-cysteine-containing and proline-rich α-astratide aM1 displayed high sequence identity to Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b (PA1b), while the eight-cysteine-containing β-astratide bM1 showed sequence similarity to plant defensins...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Natural Products
T V S Tsosura, F Y Chiba, M S L C Mattera, R F Pereira, L T A Cintra, L C Conti, R M Dos Santos, J H P Mateus, C A S Garbin, D H Sumida
AIM: To investigate the plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of rats with maternal apical periodontitis (AP) and to explore the effect of maternal inflammation on the initial steps of insulin signaling and the inflammatory pathway in the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and periepididymal white adipose tissue (pWAT) of adult offspring. METHODOLOGY: Fifteen female Wistar rats were distributed into a control group (CN), a group with 1 AP (1AP) and group with 4 AP (4AP)...
February 12, 2019: International Endodontic Journal
Nicholas C Woodward, Amanda L Crow, Yang Zhang, Sam Epstein, Jaana Hartiala, Richard Johnson, Heidi Kocalis, Arian Saffari, Ishwarya Sankaranarayanan, Omid Akbari, Gajalakshmi Ramanathan, Jesus A Araujo, Caleb E Finch, Sebastien G Bouret, Constantinos Sioutas, Todd E Morgan, Hooman Allayee
Emerging evidence from epidemiological and animal studies suggests that exposure to traffic-related air pollutants and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5 ) contributes to development of obesity and related metabolic abnormalities. However, it is not known whether nanoscale particulate matter (nPM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤200 nm have similar adverse metabolic effects. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of prenatal and early life exposure to nPM on metabolic homeostasis in mice...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
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