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A Vysakh, Kuriakose Jayesh, Lal Raisa Helen, Mathew Jyothis, M S Latha
BACKGROUND: The plant Rotula aquatica Lour. was traditionally well known due to its large number of pharmacological action and medicinal uses. The plant is a necessary component of many Ayurvedic drug preparations since historical times. It is widely used as a crucial ancient drug for kidney and bladder stones. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the study was to evaluate the acute toxicity and anti inflammatory efficacy of methanolic extract of R.aquatica Lour. in in vivo models...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Vysakh A, Abhilash S, Jayesh Kuriakose, Sebastian Jose Midhun, Mathew Jyothis, M S Latha
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used for the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. The use of gentamicin was limited due to its ototoxic and nephrotoxic adverse effects. The current study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction from Rotula aquatica (EFRA) against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. The antioxidant enzymes status, lipid peroxidation, nitrate and ROS level, serum markers like creatinine, Urea, BUN were estimated in the present study...
October 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
René Ullrich, Marzena Poraj-Kobielska, Steffi Scholze, Claire Halbout, Martin Sandvoss, Marek J Pecyna, Katrin Scheibner, Martin Hofrichter
Two unspecific peroxygenases (UPO, EC from the basidiomycetous fungi Marasmius rotula and Marasmius wettsteinii oxidized steroids with hydroxyacetyl and hydroxyl functionalities at C17 - such as cortisone, Reichstein's substance S and prednisone - via stepwise oxygenation and final fission of the side chain. The sequential oxidation started with the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon (C21) leading to a stable geminal alcohol (e.g. cortisone 21-gem-diol) and proceeded via a second oxygenation resulting in the corresponding α-ketocarboxylic acid (e...
June 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
A Vysakh, Prasad Gopika, Kuriakose Jayesh, Raj Karishma, M S Latha
Rotula aquatica belongs to the family Boraginaceae, and is reported to contain baunerol, steroids and alkaloids. In Ayurveda, R. aquatica has been used for the treatment of various diseases such as diabetes, treatment of piles, venereal disease, and cancer. The current study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of methanolic extract of R. aquatica (MERA) in RAW 264.7 cells. The cytotoxicity of MERA was analyzed by MTT assay. The total cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity, myeloperoxidase activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, nitrate level and reactive oxygen species production were studied in LPS-stimulated RAW 264...
February 2018: Inflammopharmacology
Andrés Olmedo, José C Del Río, Jan Kiebist, René Ullrich, Martin Hofrichter, Katrin Scheibner, Angel T Martínez, Ana Gutiérrez
A recently discovered peroxygenase from the fungus Marasmius rotula (MroUPO) is able to catalyze the progressive one-carbon shortening of medium and long-chain mono- and dicarboxylic acids by itself alone, in the presence of H2 O2 . The mechanism, analyzed using H2 18 O2 , starts with an α-oxidation catalyzed by MroUPO generating an α-hydroxy acid, which is further oxidized by the enzyme to a reactive α-keto intermediate whose decarboxylation yields the one-carbon shorter fatty acid. Compared with the previously characterized peroxygenase of Agrocybe aegerita, a wider heme access channel, enabling fatty acid positioning with the carboxylic end near the heme cofactor (as seen in one of the crystal structures available) could be at the origin of the unique ability of MroUPO shortening carboxylic acid chains...
December 1, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Poppy Das, Gaurav Gupta, Vinodhini Velu, Rajendra Awasthi, Kamal Dua, Himaja Malipeddi
BACKGROUND: Struvite is one of the most common urinary/kidney stones, composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MgNHPO4 ·H2 O). They are also termed as infection stones as these are associated with urinary tract infections. Numerous studies have been carried out to examine the growth and inhibition of struvite stones. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes various reports on the factors responsible for inducing struvite stones in the kidney and gives a detailed account of studies on inhibition of growth of struvite crystals...
December 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Alexander Karich, René Ullrich, Katrin Scheibner, Martin Hofrichter
Unspecific peroxygenases (UPOs) are secreted fungal enzymes with promiscuity for oxygen transfer and oxidation reactions. Functionally, they represent hybrids of P450 monooxygenases and heme peroxidases; phylogenetically they belong to the family of heme-thiolate peroxidases. Two UPOs from the basidiomycetous fungi Agrocybe aegerita (AaeUPO) and Marasmius rotula (MroUPO) converted 35 out of 40 compounds listed as EPA priority pollutants, including chlorinated benzenes and their derivatives, halogenated biphenyl ethers, nitroaromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid derivatives...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nathan S Garcia, Cheuk-Man Yung, Katherine M Davis, Tatiana Rynearson, Dana E Hunt
Phytoplankton often both provision and depend on heterotrophic bacteria. In order to investigate these relationships further, we sequenced draft genomes of three bacterial isolates from cultures of the marine diatom Thalassiosira rotula to identify metabolic functions that may support interactions with T. rotula.
May 4, 2017: Genome Announcements
Jan Kiebist, Kai-Uwe Schmidtke, Jörg Zimmermann, Harald Kellner, Nico Jehmlich, René Ullrich, Daniel Zänder, Martin Hofrichter, Katrin Scheibner
Unspecific peroxygenases (UPO, EC secreted by fungi open an efficient way to selectively oxyfunctionalize diverse organic substrates, including less-activated hydrocarbons, by transferring peroxide-borne oxygen. We investigated a cell-free approach to incorporate epoxy and hydroxyl functionalities directly into the bulky molecule testosterone by a novel unspecific peroxygenase (UPO) that is produced by the ascomycetous fungus Chaetomium globosum in a complex medium rich in carbon and nitrogen. Purification by fast protein liquid chromatography revealed two enzyme fractions with the same molecular mass (36 kDa) and with specific activity of 4...
March 16, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Bhavaniamma Vijayakumari, Venkatachalam Sasikala, Singanallur Ramu Radha, Hiranmai Yadav Rameshwar
Molecular docking is a bioinformatics tool used to study and analyse ligand receptor interactions. This helps in identifying the receptors (molecular targets) for different ligands. Using these technologies, compound isolation and drug discovery from herbals is achieved. Herbs are widely used in treatment of various ailments from time immemorial. Phytochemists and drug developers are now interestingly working in developing new molecules that can act effectively than conventional drugs. As they are developing it mostly from herbs they are found to be effective and safer drugs and quantity to be used become minimum...
2016: SpringerPlus
P R Sloan, J D Strickland
Three pelagic marine phytoplankters, Coccolithus huxleyi, Skeletonema costatum, and Thalassiosira ro-tula, and a facultative heterotroph, Cyclotella cryp-tica, have been exposed to three organic substrates, viz, glucose, acetate, and glutamate, at low concentrations (organic carbon 0.25 mg/liter). Experiments were performed in the dark and light and the net assimilation of substrate was measured by using radiocarbon. The dark uptake of carbon dioxide was also determined, together with photosynthesis at near optimum light intensity...
March 1966: Journal of Phycology
Frithjof C Küpper, Catherine Leblanc, Wolfram Meyer-Klaucke, Philippe Potin, Martin C Feiters
Members of various algal lineages are known to be strong producers of atmospherically relevant halogen emissions, that is a consequence of their capability to store and metabolize halogens. This study uses a noninvasive, synchrotron-based technique, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, for addressing in vivo bromine speciation in the brown algae Ectocarpus siliculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, and Fucus serratus, the red algae Gracilaria dura, G. gracilis, Chondrus crispus, Osmundea pinnatifida, Asparagopsis armata, Polysiphonia elongata, and Corallina officinalis, the diatom Thalassiosira rotula, the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and a natural phytoplankton sample...
August 2014: Journal of Phycology
Ida Orefice, Andrea Gerecht, Giuliana d'Ippolito, Angelo Fontana, Adrianna Ianora, Giovanna Romano
Ecologically-relevant marine diatoms produce a plethora of bioactive oxylipins deriving from fatty acid oxidation, including aldehydes, hydroxy-fatty acids, epoxy-hydroxy-fatty acids, and oxo-acids. These secondary metabolites have been related to the negative effect of diatoms on copepod reproduction, causing low hatching success and teratogenesis in the offspring during periods of intense diatom blooms. The common intermediates in the formation of oxylipins are fatty acid hydroperoxides. The quantitative measurement of these intermediates can fundamentally contribute to understanding the function and role of lipoxygenase metabolites in diatom-copepod interactions...
September 2015: Marine Drugs
Pedro W Crous, Lori M Carris, Alejandra Giraldo, Johannes Z Groenewald, David L Hawksworth, Margarita Hernández-Restrepo, Walter M Jaklitsch, Marc-Henri Lebrun, René K Schumacher, J Benjamin Stielow, Elna J van der Linde, Jūlija Vilcāne, Hermann Voglmayr, Alan R Wood
The present paper represents the second contribution in the Genera of Fungi series, linking type species of fungal genera to their morphology and DNA sequence data, and where possible, ecology. This paper focuses on 12 genera of microfungi, 11 of which the type species are neo- or epitypified here: Allantophomopsis (A. cytisporea, Phacidiaceae, Phacidiales, Leotiomycetes), Latorua gen. nov. (Latorua caligans, Latoruaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes), Macrodiplodiopsis (M. desmazieri, Macrodiplodiopsidaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes), Macrohilum (M...
June 2015: IMA Fungus
Jan Kiebist, Wolfgang Holla, Johannes Heidrich, Marzena Poraj-Kobielska, Martin Sandvoss, Reiner Simonis, Glenn Gröbe, Jens Atzrodt, Martin Hofrichter, Katrin Scheibner
Unspecific peroxygenases (UPOs, EC have proved to be stable oxygen-transferring biocatalysts for H2O2-dependent transformation of pharmaceuticals. We have applied UPOs in a drug development program and consider the enzymatic approach in parallel to a conventional chemical synthesis of the human metabolites of the bile acid reabsorption inhibitor SAR548304. Chemical preparation of N,N-di-desmethyl metabolite was realized by a seven-step synthesis starting from a late precursor of SAR548304 and included among others palladium catalysis and laborious chromatographic purification with an overall yield of 27%...
August 1, 2015: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Davide Sartori, Andrea Gaion
Although it is well known suitability of early developmental stages of sea urchin as recommended model for pollutant toxicity testing, little is known about the sensitivity of Indo-Pacific species Echinometra mathaei to polyunsaturated aldehydes. In this study, the effect of three short chain aldehydes, 2,4-decadienal (DD), 2,4-octadienal (OD) and 2,4-heptadienal (HD), normally found in many diatoms, such as Skeletonema costatum, Skeletonema marinoi and Thalassiosira rotula, was evaluated on larval development of E...
2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Esteban D Babot, José C Del Río, Marina Cañellas, Ferran Sancho, Fátima Lucas, Víctor Guallar, Lisbeth Kalum, Henrik Lund, Glenn Gröbe, Katrin Scheibner, René Ullrich, Martin Hofrichter, Angel T Martínez, Ana Gutiérrez
The goal of this study is the selective oxyfunctionalization of steroids under mild and environmentally friendly conditions using fungal enzymes. With this purpose, peroxygenases from three basidiomycete species were tested for the hydroxylation of a variety of steroidal compounds, using H2O2 as the only cosubstrate. Two of them are wild-type enzymes from Agrocybe aegerita and Marasmius rotula, and the third one is a recombinant enzyme from Coprinopsis cinerea. The enzymatic reactions on free and esterified sterols, steroid hydrocarbons, and ketones were monitored by gas chromatography, and the products were identified by mass spectrometry...
June 15, 2015: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
L G Barbosa, G J M Araujo, F A R Barbosa, C E M Bicudo
For many decades, polymorphism and its consequences have only been studied from the taxonomic point of view. Presently, interest has switched to the environmental causes of morphological variation and its consequences in the form and essence of the species. This study aimed at evaluating desmids morphological modifications of Staurastrum rotula Nordstedt during inter-annual succession patterns in two warm monomitic tropical lakes: Dom Helvécio (19°45'- 19°48'45″S, 42°33'45″W) and Carioca (19°45'20″S, 42°37'12″W)...
May 2014: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Poonam Verma, Vinod Gauttam, Ajudhia N Kalia
BACKGROUND: Pashanbhed is a commercially available diuretic and lithotropic drug, used to treat renal problems. It is a controversial name as it is assigned to various plants such as Bergenia ligulata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Coleus aromaticus and Rotula aquatica. OBJECTIVE: To perform the comparative preliminary phytochemical screening, diuretic activity, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) finger printing profile of three plants (B. ligulata, C. aromaticus, and K. pinnata), most commonly used as Pashanbhed...
April 2014: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Marc Gottschling, Federico Luebert, Hartmut H Hilger, James S Miller
Major taxa of Ehretiaceae (including parasitic Lennoaceae) have not all been included in previous molecular phylogenetic analyses. As a result, the generic limits and their circumscriptions have not been satisfactorily resolved, despite its importance for floristic studies. To clarify which monophyletic groups can be recognized within the Ehretiaceae, sequences from one nuclear (ITS) and three plastid loci (rps16, trnL-trnF, trnS-trnG) were obtained from 67 accessions tentatively assigned to the Ehretiaceae (including 91 new GenBank entries) and covering the known diversity of the group...
March 2014: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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