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latent and herpesvirus

David A Davis, Prabha Shrestha, Ashley I Aisabor, Alexandra Stream, Veronica Galli, Cynthia A Pise-Masison, Takanobu Tagawa, Joseph M Ziegelbauer, Genoveffa Franchini, Robert Yarchoan
Most chronic viruses evade T-cell and natural killer (NK) immunity through downregulation of immune surface markers. Previously we showed that Pomalidomide (Pom) increases surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-infected latent and lytic cells and restores ICAM-1 and B7-2 in latent cells. We explored the ability of Pom to increase immune surface marker expression in cells infected by other chronic viruses, including human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human papilloma virus (HPV), Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCV), and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)...
2019: Oncoimmunology
Beatrice Mercorelli, Anna Luganini, Giorgio Palù, Giorgio Gribaudo, Arianna Loregian
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that establishes a lifelong persistence in the host through both chronic and latent states of infection [...].
January 29, 2019: Viruses
Renato L Previdelli, Luca D Bertzbach, Darren J Wight, Tereza Vychodil, Yu You, Sina Arndt, Benedikt B Kaufer
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus that infects chickens and integrates its genome into the telomeres of latently infected cells. MDV encodes two proteins, UL12 and UL29 (ICP8), that are conserved among herpesviruses and could facilitate virus integration. The orthologues of UL12 and UL29 in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) possess exonuclease and single strand DNA-binding activity, respectively, and facilitate DNA recombination; however, the role of both proteins in the MDV lifecycle remains elusive...
January 28, 2019: Viruses
Alessandra De Leo, Zhong Deng, Olga Vladimirova, Horng-Shen Chen, Jayaraju Dheekollu, Abram Calderon, Kenneth A Myers, James Hayden, Frederick Keeney, Benedikt B Kaufer, Yan Yuan, Erle Robertson, Paul M Lieberman
The molecular basis for the formation of functional, higher-ordered macro-molecular domains is not completely known. The Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) genome forms a super-molecular domain structure during latent infection that is strictly dependent on the DNA binding properties of the viral nuclear antigen LANA to the viral terminal repeats (TR). LANA is known to form oligomeric structures that have been implicated in viral episome maintenance. In this study, we show that the LANA oligomerization interface is required for the formation of higher-order nuclear bodies that partially colocalize with DAXX, EZH2, H3K27me3, and ORC2 but not with PML...
January 25, 2019: PLoS Pathogens
Michal Reichert, Anna Lukasik, Piotr Zielenkiewicz, Marek Matras, Joanna Maj-Paluch, Magdalena Stachnik, Ewa Borzym
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of latency and the ability of the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) to establish life-long infections in carp remains poorly understood. To explain the role of miRNAs in this process we applied a range of molecular tools including high-throughput sequencing of RNA libraries constructed from the blood samples of infected fish followed by bioinformatic and functional analyses which show that CyHV-3 profoundly influences the expression of host miRNAs in vivo. RESULTS: We demonstrated the changed expression of 27 miRNAs in the clinical phase and 5 in the latent phase of infection...
January 16, 2019: BMC Genomics
For Yue Tso, John T West, Charles Wood
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an AIDS defining cancer in HIV-1 infected individuals or immune suppressed transplant patients. The prevalence for both KSHV and KS are highest in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV-1 infection is also epidemic. There is no effective treatment for advanced KS; therefore, the survival rate is low. Similar to other herpesviruses, KSHV's ability to establish latent infection in the host presents a major challenge to KS treatment or prevention...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Virology
Kai Yan, Jie Liu, Xiang Guan, Yi-Xin Yin, Hui Peng, Huan-Chun Chen, Zheng-Fei Liu
Following its entry into cells, pseudorabies virus (PRV) utilizes microtubules to deliver its nucleocapsid to the nucleus. Previous studies have shown that PRV VP1/2 is an effector of dynein-mediated capsid transport. However, the mechanism of PRV recruiting microtubule motor proteins for successful neuroinvasion and neurovirulence is not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that PRV pUL21 is an inner tegument protein. We tested its interaction with the cytoplasmic light chains using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay and observed that PRV pUL21 interacts with Roadblock-1...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Virology
Iwona Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Justyna Dunaj, Agata Zajkowska, Anna Niemcunowicz-Janica, Monika Król, Sławomir Pancewicz, Joanna Zajkowska
Background: Among over 100 types of Herpesviridae viruses, eight can infect humans: herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8 (HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8). After initial infection, the viruses remain latent for the lifetime of the host. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of six different herpesviruses: HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, and HHV-6 in trigeminal and facial nerve ganglia among a random group of Polish population...
2019: PeerJ
Tereza C Cardoso, Lucas H Okamura, Jamila C Baptistella, Ana Carolina Borsanelli, Lillian Baptistiolli, Helena L Ferreira, Roberto Gameiro, Eduardo F Flores
Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and 5 (BHV5) are known to establish latent infections in sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglion, yet leukocytes and tonsils have also been described as sites of latency in experimentally infected cattle. Little information is available on which immune cells are susceptible to BHV5 infection and how the infection may affect cell bioenergy. The aim of this study was to determine whether primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages are susceptible to BHV5 infection and to evaluate parameters such as cell survival, virus replication and nitric oxide (NO) production...
February 2019: Veterinary Microbiology
Bo Yang, Osvaldo Bogado Pascottini, Jiexiong Xie, Lowiese Desmarets, Tingting Cui, Geert Opsomer, Hans J Nauwynck
In the past, bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been suggested to be associated with metritis and endometritis. However, not many field studies investigated the association between BoHV-4 and subclinical endometritis (SCE). In the present study, the association between the intrauterine presence of BoHV-4 and SCE diagnosed during artificial insemination (AI) was examined on two dairy farms in Belgium. An immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and an enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) were used to screen the serum for anti-BoHV-4 antibodies...
February 2019: Veterinary Microbiology
Meng Cui, Qiwen Fang, Jun Zheng, Zhanjun Shu, Yin Chen, Yage Fan, Juan Zhao, Charles Wood, Tiejun Zhang, Yan Zeng
OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential relationship between Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) in Xinjiang, China. METHODS: A case-control study of consecutively included DM-2 patients and normal controls was conducted among the Uygur and Han populations in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Blood samples were collected and KSHV seroprevalence, antibody titers, and viral load were detected. Logistic regression analysis and multiple linear regression were applied to explore determinants of the main outcome measures...
January 9, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Tadashi Watanabe, Masahiro Fujimuro
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and Castleman's disease. While liposomal doxorubicin has been used as an effective treatment for KS patients, the cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) regimen used for PEL patients was reported to have 1-year survival rates of less than 40%. Moreover, the development of anti-KSHV drugs inhibiting viral replication has been delayed. KSHV establishes a lifelong infection in its host and alternates between a "latent infection" and "lytic infection" state...
2019: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Kohji Noguchi
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human oncogenic virus, is a B cell-tropic herpesvirus and has the ability to immortalize normal B cells during latent infection. The Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein of EBV is expressed in the most EBV latently infected cells and binds to a specific viral genome region termed "oriP" (origin of plasmid replication) to maintain the stability of the approximately 170 kb double-stranded circular virus genomic DNA (episome) in cells. EBV elimination is thought to inhibit progression of EBV-associated malignancies, and the EBNA1-dependent mechanisms for EBV episome replication and maintenance are considered to be novel molecular targets for anti-EBV therapy...
2019: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Marisa Granato, Maria Saveria Gilardini Montani, Camilla Angiolillo, Gabriella D'Orazi, Alberto Faggioni, Mara Cirone
Previous studies have indicated that cytotoxic treatments may induce or not activate viral lytic cycle activation in cancer cells latently infected by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for such an effect, we compared two cytotoxic treatments able to induce the viral lytic cycle, named 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) (T) in combination with sodium butyrate (B) and bortezomib (BZ), with two cytotoxic treatments that did not activate this process, named metformin (MET) and quercetin (Q)...
December 24, 2018: Viruses
Gabriel M Cohen, Arielle L Langer, Hamid Sima, Charissa Chang, Kevin Troy, Sarah Taimur
Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) remains best known as an oncogenic virus, but nonneoplastic disease manifestations, such as bone marrow failure or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) have gained greater recognition in recent years. In organ transplantation, HHV-8 infection commonly occurs with reactivation of latent virus among recipients from endemic regions of the world or due to transmission from the organ donor. We describe a case of HHV-8-associated HLH in a liver transplant recipient at increased risk for primary infection...
December 2018: Transplantation Direct
Yun-Yan Lou, Qiong-Dan Wang, Yu-Tian Lu, Meng-Yun Tu, Xi Xu, Ying Xia, Ying Peng, Mei-Mei Lai, Xiao-Qun Zheng
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an opportunistic prototypic beta-herpesvirus that can cause severe and even fatal diseases in immune-naive newborns and immunocompromised adults. Host-virus interactions occurring at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels are critical for establishing an HCMV latent or lytic infection, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the expression of circRNAs in human leukemia monocytes (THP-1 cells) latently infected with HCMV and explored the diagnostic value of circRNAs in children with HCMV infection...
December 21, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Erin G Reid, David Looney, Frank Maldarelli, Ariela Noy, David Henry, David Aboulafia, Juan Carlos Ramos, Joseph Sparano, Richard F Ambinder, Jeannette Lee, Ethel Cesarman, Sara Yahyaei, Ronald Mitsuyasu, William Wachsman
HIV-associated lymphomas (HALs) have high rates of latent infection by gammaherpesviruses (GHVs). We hypothesized that proteasome inhibition would induce lytic activation of GHVs and inhibit HIV infectivity via preservation of cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G, improving lymphoma control. We tested this oncolytic and antiviral strategy by using bortezomib combined with ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) alone or with rituximab (ICE/R) in relapsed/refractory HAL. A 3+3 dose-escalation design was used with a 7-day lead-in period of single-agent bortezomib...
December 26, 2018: Blood Advances
Yessica Sánchez-Ponce, Gustavo Varela-Fascinetto, José Carlos Romo-Vázquez, Briceida López-Martínez, José Luis Sánchez-Huerta, Israel Parra-Ortega, Ezequiel M Fuentes-Pananá, Abigail Morales-Sánchez
Herpesviruses are common components of the human microbiome that become clinically relevant when a competent immunosurveillance is compromised, such as in transplantation. Members of the beta and gamma subfamilies are associated with a wide diversity of pathologies, including end-organ disease and cancer. In this study, we developed a multiplex qPCR technique with high specificity, sensitivity, efficiency and predictability that allowed the simultaneous detection and quantification of beta and gamma human herpesviruses...
December 19, 2018: Viruses
Nathan Ungerleider, Vaibhav Jain, Yiping Wang, Nicholas J Maness, Robert V Blair, Xavier Alvarez, Cecily Midkiff, Dennis Kolson, Shanshan Bai, Claire Roberts, Walter N Moss, Xia Wang, Jacqueline Serfecz, Michael Seddon, Terri Lehman, Tianfang Ma, Yan Dong, Rolf Renne, Scott A Tibbetts, Erik K Flemington
Recent studies have identified circular RNAs (circRNAs) expressed from the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) human DNA tumor viruses. To gain initial insights into the potential relevance of EBV circRNAs in virus biology and disease, we assessed the circRNAome of the interspecies homologue, rhesus macaque lymphocryptovirus (rLCV) in a naturally occurring lymphoma from a simian immunodeficiency (SIV) virus infected rhesus macaque. This analysis revealed rLCV orthologs of the latency-associated EBV circular RNAs, circRPMS1_E4_E3a and circEBNA_U...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Virology
Paul Legendre, Emma Norkowski, François Le Pelletier, Makoto Miyara, Sylvain Choquet, Julien Haroche, Isabelle Brocheriou, Stéphane Barete
Glomeruloid haemangioma (GH) is considered a specific marker of POEMS syndrome, despite some published GH cases unrelated to POEMS syndrome. To present two cases with GH and atypical presentations of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) or POEMS syndrome, as well as a retrospective monocentric study of histologically-confirmed GH. Clinical, biological and histological data of the patients is presented. In addition to the two presented cases, 11 GH histologically-confirmed cases were retrospectively identified. Six patients were female (46...
December 17, 2018: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
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