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Super Cold Chain

Sushil Kumar, Vishakha Sharma, Swati Chaudhary, Anshika Tyagi, Poonam Mishra, Anupama Priyadarshini, Anupam Singh
Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and exposure to long days (photoperiod). Dominant Vrn-1 (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1) alleles are associated with vernalization independent spring growth habit. The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b)...
2012: Journal of Genetics
Roger Cooke
Resting skeletal muscle is a major contributor to adaptive thermogenesis, i.e., the thermogenesis that changes in response to exposure to cold or to overfeeding. The identification of the "furnace" that is responsible for increased heat generation in resting muscle has been the subject of a number of investigations. A new state of myosin, the super relaxed state (SRX), with a very slow ATP turnover rate has recently been observed in skeletal muscle (Stewart et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:430-435, 2010)...
March 2011: Biophysical Reviews
Ju Li, Akihiro Kushima, Jacob Eapen, Xi Lin, Xiaofeng Qian, John C Mauro, Phong Diep, Sidney Yip
The microscopic origin of glass transition, when liquid viscosity changes continuously by more than ten orders of magnitude, is challenging to explain from first principles. Here we describe the detailed derivation and implementation of a Markovian Network model to calculate the shear viscosity of deeply supercooled liquids based on numerical sampling of an atomistic energy landscape, which sheds some light on this transition. Shear stress relaxation is calculated from a master-equation description in which the system follows a transition-state pathway trajectory of hopping among local energy minima separated by activation barriers, which is in turn sampled by a metadynamics-based algorithm...
March 25, 2011: PloS One
Melody S Clark, Michael A S Thorne, Jean-Yves Toullec, Yan Meng, Le Luo Guan, Lloyd S Peck, Stephen Moore
BACKGROUND: The Antarctic krill Euphausia superba is a keystone species in the Antarctic food chain. Not only is it a significant grazer of phytoplankton, but it is also a major food item for charismatic megafauna such as whales and seals and an important Southern Ocean fisheries crop. Ecological data suggest that this species is being affected by climate change and this will have considerable consequences for the balance of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Hence, understanding how this organism functions is a priority area and will provide fundamental data for life history studies, energy budget calculations and food web models...
2011: PloS One
L Davis, L S Williams
Control of isoleucine-valine biosynthesis was examined in the cold-sensitive hisW3333 mutant strain of Salmonella typhimurium. During growth at the permissive temperature (37 degrees C), the isoleucine-valine (ilv) biosynthetic enzyme levels of the hisW mutant were two- to fourfold below these levels in an isogenic hisW+ strain. Upon a reduction in growth temperature to partially permissive (30 degrees C), the synthesis of these enzymes in the hisW mutant was further reduced. However, synthesis of the ilv enzymes was responsive to the repression signal(s) caused by the addition of excess amounts of isoleucine, valine, and leucine to the hisW mutants...
August 1982: Journal of Bacteriology
D T Hess, T M Slater, M C Wilson, J H Skene
A conspicuous correlate of the developmental transformation of axonal growth cones to synaptic terminals is a marked increase in synthesis and axonal transport of a methionine-rich, acidic polypeptide of approximately 25 kDa. This polypeptide, designated "super protein" (SuP), is the most prominent species among methionine-labeled proteins conveyed by rapid axonal transport in mature CNS and PNS neurons of warm- and cold-blooded vertebrates. We show here that SuP is identical to SNAP-25, a highly conserved synaptic protein of known primary structure, by immunoprecipitation with anti-SNAP-25 antiserum of SuP labeled with 35S-methionine and transported by retinal ganglion cells of rat and cat...
December 1992: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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