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Ictal interictal continuum

Hyunjo Lee, Moshe A Mizrahi, Jed A Hartings, Sameer Sharma, Laura Pahren, Laura B Ngwenya, Brian D Moseley, Michael Privitera, Frank C Tortella, Brandon Foreman
OBJECTIVES: After traumatic brain injury, continuous electroencephalography is widely used to detect electrographic seizures. With the development of standardized continuous electroencephalography terminology, we aimed to describe the prevalence and burden of ictal-interictal patterns, including electrographic seizures after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury and to correlate continuous electroencephalography features with functional outcome. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of the prospective, randomized controlled phase 2 multicenter INTREPID study (ClinicalTrials...
January 7, 2019: Critical Care Medicine
Jin Jing, Emile drAngremont, Sahar Zafar, Eric S Rosenthal, Mohammad Tabaeizadeh, Senan Ebrahim, Justin Dauwels, M Brandon Westover
Seizures, status epilepticus, and seizure-like rhythmic or periodic activities are common, pathological, harmful states of brain electrical activity seen in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of patients during critical medical illnesses or acute brain injury. Accumulating evidence shows that these states, when prolonged, cause neurological injury. In this study we developed a valid method to automatically discover a small number of homogeneous pattern clusters, to facilitate efficient interactive labelling by EEG experts...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Christoph Stretz, Zubeda Sheikh, Carolina B Maciel, Lawrence J Hirsch, Emily J Gilmore
Objective: Primary intraventricular hemorrhage (pIVH) uncommonly presents with seizures. There are no prior data regarding the frequency of seizures, periodic and rhythmic patterns on continuous electroencephalography (EEG), (cEEG) in these patients. Methods: We retrospectively assessed frequency of seizures, periodic discharges, and rhythmic patterns in pIVH patients undergoing cEEG monitoring. We reviewed indications for cEEG, demographics, GCS at presentation and during cEEG, modified Graeb score (mGS), presence of hydrocephalus, cEEG duration, findings and use of antiseizure medications (ASM)...
September 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Gregory Kapinos, Eugen Trinka, Peter W Kaplan
We propose a comprehensive review of the subject of epileptiform and potentially harmful EEG patterns that lie on the interictal continuum (IIC) to help with therapeutic decision-making and target future research. This approach to "electro-physiological SE" encompasses five dimensions of the IIC: it characterizes a periodic or rhythmic pattern, not only regarding its ictal morphology and potential harm with secondary neuronal injury, but also addresses the "metabolic footprint," clinical repercussion, and epileptogenic potential...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Giridhar P Kalamangalam, Bernhard Pohlmann-Eden
The term "ictal-interictal" continuum has seen wide adoption in the critical care EEG domain, referring to the presence of abnormal periodic activity on the scalp EEG variably associated with seizures. The historical origin of the ictal-interictal continuum concept is discussed with a review of known and surmised physiological mechanisms for their origin and relationship to seizures. Therapeutic approaches to patients exhibiting ictal-interictal continuum EEG patterns are reviewed, and some open scientific questions highlighted...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Alvin S Das, Jong Woo Lee, Eric S Rosenthal, Henrikas Vaitkevicius
BACKGROUND: Management of refractory status epilepticus (SE) commonly involves the induction of burst suppression using intravenous anesthetic agents. However, the endpoints of these therapies are not well defined. Weaning anesthetic agents are complicated by the emergence of electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns along the ictal-interictal continuum (IIC), which have uncertain significance given that IIC patterns may worsen cerebral metabolism and oxygenation, have a dissociation between scalp and depth EEG recordings, or may indicate a late stage of SE itself...
June 8, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Emily L Johnson, Peter W Kaplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Gamaleldin M Osman, Davi F Araújo, Carolina B Maciel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present data available on the epidemiology and significance of rhythmic and periodic patterns that lie on the ictal interictal continuum and propose an algorithm for the clinical approach to patients exhibiting these patterns. RECENT FINDINGS: There is accumulating evidence on the prognostic implications of various rhythmic and periodic patterns in the critically ill population. These patterns are not only associated with increased seizure risk but have also been associated with worse outcome and increased long-term risk of epilepsy in recent studies...
April 18, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Jean E Cibula, Daniel S Demos, Brenda G Fahy
BACKGROUND: A challenge in ICU EEG interpretation is identifying subclinical status epilepticus versus patterns on the ictal-interictal continuum versus other repetitive patterns. In the electrically noisy intensive care unit, identifying and eliminating interference and artifact allow accurate diagnoses from the EEG, avoiding unnecessary treatment or sedation. METHODS: We present a case during Impella (Abiomed Inc, Danvers, MA) continuous flow left ventricular assist device use where the EEG artifact was initially misinterpreted as seizure by the resident and treated as status epilepticus because of the "focal" sharply contoured repetitive pattern...
August 2018: Neurocritical Care
Brandy B Ma, Emily L Johnson, Eva K Ritzl
INTRODUCTION: Neurocritical care units commonly implement the double-distance reduced EEG montage in postoperative neurosurgic patients who have structural barriers that hinder the placement of a standard 10-20 system array. Despite its widespread use, its sensitivity has not been adequately addressed. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of this montage for seizure detection. METHODS: One hundred fifty-five full-montage continuous EEGs (cEEGs) completed in the Johns Hopkins University neurocritical care unit containing unequivocal electrographic seizures, status epilepticus, or other abnormalities were selected, comprising 73 ictal and 82 nonictal EEGs...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Justine Cormier, Carolina B Maciel, Emily J Gilmore
Continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) monitoring is an invaluable tool in the evaluation of encephalopathy and coma in critically ill patients. Marked increases in cEEG monitoring, coinciding with several societal guideline statements in the last decade, have allowed earlier detection and treatment of clearly harmful patterns, including nonconvulsive seizures (NCSz) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). However, it has also unmasked a range of EEG patterns of less clear clinical significance, with some more "malignant" than others given their potential association with increased neuronal stress and secondary brain injury...
December 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Clio Rubinos, Alexandra S Reynolds, Jan Claassen
Continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) monitoring is becoming increasingly used in neurologic and non-neurologic intensive care units (ICUs). Non-convulsive seizures (NCSz) and periodic discharges (PDs) are commonly seen in critically ill patients. Some of these PD patterns, also known as the ictal-interictal continuum (IIC), are associated with an increased risk of seizures and poor outcome. However, we do not fully understand the significance of these periodic patterns and the decision of how aggressively to treat remains controversial...
August 2018: Neurocritical Care
Michael O Kinney, Peter W Kaplan
Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a complex and diverse condition which is often an under-recognised entity in the intensive care unit. When NCSE is identified the optimal treatment strategy is not always clear. Areas covered: This review is based on a literature review of the key literature in the field over the last 5-10 years. The articles were selected based on their importance to the field by the authors. Expert commentary: This review discusses the complex situations when a neurological consultation may occur in a critical care setting and provides an update on the latest evidence regarding the recognition of NCSE and the decision making around determining the aggressiveness of treatment...
October 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
J A Kim, E S Rosenthal, S Biswal, S Zafar, A V Shenoy, K L O'Connor, S C Bechek, J Valdery Moura, M M Shafi, A B Patel, S S Cash, M B Westover
OBJECTIVE: To identify whether abnormal neural activity, in the form of epileptiform discharges and rhythmic or periodic activity, which we term here ictal-interictal continuum abnormalities (IICAs), are associated with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) reports and medical records from 124 patients with moderate to severe grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We identified daily occurrence of seizures and IICAs...
June 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Andrew Bauerschmidt, Andrew Martin, Jan Claassen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Status epilepticus has a high morbidity and mortality. There are little definitive data to guide management; however, new recent data continue to improve understanding of management options of status epilepticus. This review examines recent advancements regarding the critical care management of status epilepticus. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies support the initial treatment of status epilepticus with early and aggressive benzodiazepine dosing...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Christopher R Newey, Pradeep Sahota, Stephen Hantus
PURPOSE: To risk-stratify electrographic features of lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) in acute structural brain lesions for predictors of electrographic seizures. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of 100 consecutive patients with LPDs. Epileptiform features of LPDs were described based on electrographic features: blunt delta morphology, sharply contoured, overlying fast frequencies, and/or rhythmicity (loss of interdischarge interval lasting ≥1 second)...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Alexandra S Reynolds, Jan Claassen
Seizures are a common occurrence following cardiac arrest and may occur both during targeted temperature management and after rewarming. Postanoxic seizures may be nonconvulsive and very difficult to diagnose without electroencephalography (EEG) or associated with prominent myoclonus. Importantly, to date no randomized controlled trials are available to guide the management of seizures in patients with cardiac arrest. Seizure prophylaxis is not recommended, and when seizures are diagnosed they are typically treated the same as seizures in other patients with acute brain injury...
February 2017: Seminars in Neurology
Jens Witsch, Hans-Peter Frey, J Michael Schmidt, Angela Velazquez, Cristina M Falo, Michael Reznik, David Roh, Sachin Agarwal, Soojin Park, E Sander Connolly, Jan Claassen
Importance: Periodic discharges (PDs) that do not meet seizure criteria, also termed the ictal interictal continuum, are pervasive on electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings after acute brain injury. However, their association with brain homeostasis and the need for clinical intervention remain unknown. Objective: To determine whether distinct PD patterns can be identified that, similar to electrographic seizures, cause brain tissue hypoxia, a measure of ongoing brain injury...
March 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
Anand Venkatraman, Ayaz Khawaja, Asim K Bag, Maira Mirza, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Sandipan B B Pati
Lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) are commonly seen on EEG in critically ill patients. They are often associated with seizures, but some patients may have them without seizures. Therefore, they are considered to lie in the ictal-interictal continuum. When ictal, they require multiple antiepileptic drugs to treat effectively, which can expose the patient to iatrogenic complications. Therefore, optimal management is controversial. We present here two cases where perfusion-weighted MRI was useful in distinguishing ictal from interictal LPDs...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Aaron F Struck, M Brandon Westover, Lance T Hall, Gina M Deck, Andrew J Cole, Eric S Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Ictal-interictal continuum (IIC) continuous EEG (cEEG) patterns including periodic discharges and rhythmic delta activity are associated with poor outcome and in the appropriate clinical context, IIC patterns may represent "electroclinical" status epilepticus (SE). To clarify the significance of IIC patterns and their relationship to "electrographic" SE, we investigated FDG-PET imaging as a complementary metabolic biomarker of SE among patients with IIC patterns...
June 2016: Neurocritical Care
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