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Peptidoglycan recognition protein

Yen-Chih Wang, Nathan P Westcott, Matthew E Griffin, Howard C Hang
The peptidoglycan fragments -D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP) and muramyl-dipeptide (MDP) are microbial-specific metabolites that activate intracellular pattern recognition receptors and stimulate immune signaling pathways. While extensive structure-activity studies have demonstrated that these bacterial cell wall metabolites trigger NOD1- and NOD2-dependent signaling, their direct binding to these innate immune receptors or other proteins in mammalian cells has not been established. To characterize these fundamental microbial metabolite-host interactions, we synthesized a series of peptidoglycan metabolite photoaffinity reporters and evaluated their crosslinking to NOD1 and NOD2 in mammalian cells...
February 8, 2019: ACS Chemical Biology
Ruo-Nan Zhang, Cai-Ting Li, Fei-Fei Ren, Ming-Qiang Ye, Xiao-Juan Deng, Hui-Yu Yi, Yang Cao, Wan-Ying Yang
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are members of an important class of pattern recognition receptors in insects that can specifically recognize peptidoglycan (PGN) in bacterial cell walls and participate in immune regulation and bacterial clearance. Although the role of PGRPs in regulating the innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster has been studied, little is known regarding PGRPs in Lepidoptera species. In this study, five short (S)-type Bombyx mori PGRPs (BmPGRPs) were cloned, expressed, and evaluated for their function in innate immunity...
January 29, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Niraj Chaudhary, Keiko Ueno-Shuto, Tomomi Ono, Yuko Ohira, Kenji Watanabe, Aoi Nasu, Haruka Fujikawa, Ryunosuke Nakashima, Noriki Takahashi, Mary Ann Suico, Hirofumi Kai, Tsuyoshi Shuto
Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common lethal inherited disorder caused by mutation in the gene encoding the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR), is characterized by chronic inflammation that ultimately leads to death from respiratory failure. In CF patients, up-regulation of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), a pattern recognition receptor that senses CF-pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan (PGN), in airway epithelial cells is observed, and enhanced proinflammatory responses towards PGN may result in detrimental effects in CF patients...
January 10, 2019: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Fumiao Zhang, Shijuan Shan, Xiaoyang Xu, Yao Wang, Yonghuan Zhang, Miao Yin, Guiwen Yang
BACKGROUND: Although teleost fish developed acquired immunity firstly in evolution, innate immunity is still very important for them. Innate immunity depends on pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to distinguish "self" and "non-self", Peptidoglycan (PGN) recognition protein (PGRP) is one of the receptors and it can bind to multiple components of bacterial envelope. RESULTS: We report the cloning and expression analysis of two PGRPs (Ccpgrp5 and Ccpgrp6) from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L)...
January 7, 2019: BMC Veterinary Research
Xinfang Mao, Xin Xu, Xiaoxia Yang, Zaixin Li, Jianhua Yang, Zhongyuan Liu
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) widely distributed in invertebrates and vertebrates are pattern-recognition molecules in innate immunity. In the present study, a novel short PGRP gene, designated as ApPGRP was identified from Anatolica polita. The deduced amino acid sequence of ApPGRP is composed of 196 residues and contains a conserved PGRP domain at the C-terminus. The phylogenetic tree showed that ApPGRP shared high homology of amino acid sequence with TcPGRP2 from Tribolium castaneum. The recombinant protein of ApPGRP exhibited binding activity toward Escherichia coli and DAP-type PGN from E...
December 26, 2018: Gene
Qiang Wang, Meijia Ren, Xiaoyong Liu, Hengchuan Xia, Keping Chen
Insects lack an acquired immune system and rely solely on the innate immune system to combat microbial infection. The innate immunity of insects mainly depends on the interaction between the host's pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). The peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) family is the most important pattern recognition receptor (PRR) for insects. It can recognize the main component of the cell wall of the pathogenic microorganism, peptidoglycan (PGN), and plays an important role in the innate immunity of insects...
December 24, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Ying Huang, Qian Ren
As pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), C-type lectins (CTLs) play crucial roles in recognizing and eliminating pathogens in innate immunity. In this study, a novel CTL (HcCUB-Lec) was identified from the triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii. The full-length of HcCUB-Lec cDNA was 1558 bp with an open reading frame of 1281 bp that encodes a putative protein of 426 amino acid residues, including an N-terminal signal peptide, a complement Uegf Bmp1 (CUB) domain, a single carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), and a transmembrane domain...
April 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Ayman Hyder
Nutrients may modulate immunity through their transcription factors that act on both metabolic and immunity genes. It has been shown that the transcription factor of lipid ligands PPARγ physically binds the gene promoter of the peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGlyRP3), which showed anti-inflammatory action in vitro. It is hypothesized in the present work that olive oil feeding protects against toxicity of DSS-induced colitis via activation of the lipid transcription factor PPARγ that stimulates the anti-inflammatory PGlyRP3...
December 7, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Ying Huang, Jianlin Pan, Xuguang Li, Qian Ren, Zhe Zhao
Peptidoglycan (PGN) is an important target of recognition in invertebrate innate immunity. PGN recognition proteins (PGRPs) are responsible for PGN recognition. In this study, we cloned and functionally analyzed a short PGRP (HcPGRP2) from the triangle-shell pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii. The full-length cDNA sequence of HcPGRP2 gene was 1185 bp containing an open reading frame of 882 bp encoding a 293 amino acid protein. HcPGRP2 was predicted to have two SH3b domains and a conserved C-terminal PGRP domain...
December 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ciaran Skerry, William E Goldman, Nicholas H Carbonetti
Incidence of whooping cough (pertussis), a bacterial infection of the respiratory tract caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis , has reached levels not seen since the 1950s. Antibiotics fail to improve the course of disease unless administered early in infection. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of anti-pertussis therapeutics. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) agonists have been shown to reduce pulmonary inflammation during Bordetella pertussis infection in mouse models. However, the mechanisms by which S1PR agonists attenuate pertussis disease are unknown...
December 3, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Yanjie Liu, Xiaomeng Zhao, Jiaxing Huang, Minming Chen, Jiandong An
The peptidoglycan recognition protein SAs (PGRP-SAs) from Bombus ignitus (Bi-PGRP-SA), Apis mellifera (Am-PGRP-SA), and Megachile rotundata PGRP-SA (Mr-PGRP-SA) exhibit an intrinsic ability to preferentially bind to Dap-type peptidoglycan (PGN) from Bacillus subtilis rather than Lys-type PGN from Micrococcus luteus This ability is more analogous to the binding exhibited by PGRP-LCx and PGRP-SD than to that exhibited by PGRP-SA in Drosophila Moreover, Bi-PGRP-SA and Am-PGRP-SA share greater sequence identity with Drosophila PGRP-LCx than with PGRP-SD and retain several conserved contact residues, including His37 /His38 , His60 /His61 , Trp66 /Trp67 , Ala150 /Ala151 , and Thr151 /Thr152 However, the corresponding contact residue Arg85 is not a major anchor residue in bees (e...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Noriaki Aoi, Ichiro Morikura, Takafumi Fuchiwaki, Takaya Yamada, Emmanuel Prokopakis, Hideyuki Kawauchi
OK-432, a preparation of a low-virulence strain (Su) of Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) killed by a penicillin and lyophilized, is a stiff inducer of Th1 cytokines, and exerts anti-cancer effects in tumor-bearing mice. OK-432 has been reported to consist of many bacterial components, such as peptidoglycan, M-protein, etc. However, it is yet to be ascertained which bacterial component induces T helper 1 (Th1) responses. For the last decade, Toll-like receptor (TLR) family proteins are well elucidated to play a role in recognizing bacterial components and inducing interleukin (IL)-12 from macrophages...
November 26, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Igor Iatsenko, Jean-Philippe Boquete, Bruno Lemaitre
Commensal microbes colonize the gut epithelia of virtually all animals and provide several benefits to their hosts. Changes in commensal populations can lead to dysbiosis, which is associated with numerous pathologies and decreased lifespan. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are important regulators of the commensal microbiota and intestinal homeostasis. Here, we found that a null mutation in Drosophila PGRP-SD was associated with overgrowth of Lactobacillus plantarum in the fly gut and a shortened lifespan...
November 20, 2018: Immunity
Kwang-Min Choi, Min-Soo Joo, Dong Hee Cho, Jin-Sol Bae, Ji-Min Jung, Jee Youn Hwang, Mun-Gyeong Kwon, Jung Soo Seo, Seong Don Hwang, Bo-Yeong Jee, Do-Hyung Kim, Chan-Il Park
Peptidoglycan recognition protein 2 (PGRP2) is a Zn2+ -dependent peptidase that plays important roles in binding to microbial components of the cell membrane, inducing phagocytosis and antimicrobial activity. Rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) PGRP2 (RbPGRP2) was identified in the intestine by next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis. The open reading frame (ORF) the RbPGRP2 cDNA (470 amino acid residues) contains a peptidoglycan recognition protein domain (residues 300 to 446). Alignment analysis revealed that RbPGRP2 shares 37...
November 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Qing Luo, Xue Li, Lu Zhang, Fangyi Yao, Zhen Deng, Cheng Qing, Rigu Su, Jianqing Xu, Yang Guo, Zikun Huang, Junming Li
Peptidoglycan recognition protein‑1 (PGLYRP‑1) is a part of the innate immune system. It is well‑known that dysregulation of innate immune responses is present in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the role of Pglyrp1/PGLYPR‑1 in RA is poorly understood. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the level of Pglyrp1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. An ELISA was used to measure the level of PGLYPR‑1 in the serum, and correlation analysis was performed to analyze the association between the level of PGLYPR‑1 in the serum and clinical characteristics...
November 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xue Kong, Helu Liu, Yanan Li, Haibin Zhang
Vesicomyidae clams are common species living in cold seeps, which incorporates symbiotic bacteria into their body maintaining endosymbiosis relationship. As members of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) family, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns and play an important role in innate immunity. In present study, two short PGRPs (ApPGRP-1 and -2) were first identified from Vesicomyidae clam Archivesica packardana . Sequences analysis showed that they have both conserved Zn2+ binding sites (H-H-C) and amidase catalytic sites (H-Y-H-T-C), and phylogenetic tree indicated that they clustered with short PGRPs of other molluscs...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yang Zhou, Yinyin Wang, Xiaofeng Li, Frank Addai Peprah, Xiaochen Wang, Haitao Liu, Feng Lin, Jie Gu, Feng Yu, Haifeng Shi
To investigate the biological processes affected by long-term iron supplementation, newly hatched silkworms were exposed to high iron mulberry diet (10 and 100 ppm) and its effect on silkworm transcriptom was determined. The results showed that the silkworm was responsive to iron by increasing iron concentration and ferritin levels in the hemolymph and by regulating the expression of many other genes. A total of 523 and 326 differentially expressed genes were identified in 10 and 100 ppm Fe group compared to the control, respectively...
October 31, 2018: Genomics
Yuqi Bai, Donghong Niu, Yan Li, Yulin Bai, Tianyi Lan, Maoxiao Peng, Zhiguo Dong, Fanyue Sun, Jiale Li
Galectins are lectins possessing an evolutionarily conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) with affinity for β-galactoside. The key role played by innate immunity in invertebrates has recently become apparent. Herein, a full-length galectin (ScGal) was identified in razor clam (Sinonovacula constricta). The 528 bp open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 176 amino acids with a single CRD and no signal peptide. ScGal mRNA transcripts were mainly expressed in hemolymph and gill, and were significantly up-regulated following bacterial challenge...
October 30, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yanan Zong, Zhaoqun Liu, Zhaojun Wu, Zirong Han, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
The globular C1q domain containing (C1qDC) proteins are a family of versatile pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to bind various ligands by their globular C1q (gC1q) domain. In the present study, a novel globular C1qDC (CgC1qDC-7) was characterized from Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The open reading frame of CgC1qDC-7 was of 555 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 185 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CgC1qDC-7 shared high homology with C1qDCs from Crassostrea virginica, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and Mizuhopecten yessoensis...
October 29, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Lingling Wang, Huan Zhang, Mengqiang Wang, Zhi Zhou, Weilin Wang, Rui Liu, Mengmeng Huang, Chuanyan Yang, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are essential in recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on microbes and triggering responses to eliminate the invading pathogens. Previous genomic studies have revealed a great number of PRR genes in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, a sessile and filter-feeder marine bivalve belonging to the phylum Mollusca. On the survey of PRRs in the assembly oyster reference genome version 9, a total of 1084 PRRs were identified, which were composed of at least 12 gene families...
February 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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