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Jose Carlos Aldana-Aguirre, Jennifer Toye, Prakesh S Shah, Eugene W Yoon, Kumar Kumaran
BACKGROUND: The current treatment approach in patent ductus arteriosus suggests the identification of high-risk infants that may benefit the most from treatment. Small for gestational age infants are a high-risk population in which the treatment approach to the patent ductus arteriosus and outcomes have not been described. AIM: To compare the patent ductus arteriosus treatment approach and outcomes in small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age infants...
February 13, 2019: Early Human Development
S Lloyd-Fox, A Blasi, S McCann, M Rozhko, L Katus, L Mason, T Austin, S E Moore, C E Elwell
The first 1000 days of life are a critical window of vulnerability to exposure to socio-economic and health challenges (i.e. poverty/undernutrition). The Brain Imaging for Global Health (BRIGHT) project has been established to deliver longitudinal measures of brain development from 0-24 months in UK and Gambian infants and to assess the impact of early adversity. Here results from the Habituation-Novelty Detection functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) task at 5 and 8 months are presented (N = 62 UK; N = 115 Gambia)...
February 16, 2019: Developmental Science
James A Church, Sandra Rukobo, Margaret Govha, Benjamin Lee, Marya P Carmolli, Bernard Chasekwa, Robert Ntozini, Kuda Mutasa, Monica M McNeal, Florence D Majo, Naume V Tavengwa, Lawrence H Moulton, Jean H Humphrey, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Andrew J Prendergast
BACKGROUND: Oral vaccines have lower efficacy in developing compared to developed countries. Poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) may contribute to reduced oral vaccine immunogenicity. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized 2x2 factorial trial in rural Zimbabwe (NCT01824940). Pregnant women and their infants were eligible if they lived in clusters randomized to: 1) Standard-of-care (52 clusters); 2) Improved infant feeding (53 clusters); 3) WASH: ventilated improved pit latrine, two hand-washing stations, liquid soap, chlorine, infant play space, hygiene counseling (53 clusters); or 4) Feeding+WASH (53 clusters)...
February 16, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Shinjini Bhatnagar, Partha P Majumder, Dinakar M Salunke
Globally, preterm birth is a major public health problem. In India, 3.6 million of the 27 million infants born annually are preterm. Risk stratification of women based on multidimensional risk factors assessed during pregnancy is critical for prevention of preterm birth. A cohort study of pregnant women was initiated in May 2015 at the civil hospital in Gurugram, Haryana, India. Women are enrolled within 20 weeks of gestation and are followed until delivery and once postpartum. The objectives are to identify clinical, epidemiologic, genomic, epigenomic, proteomic, and microbial correlates; discover molecular-risk markers by using an integrative -omics approach; and generate a risk-prediction algorithm for preterm birth...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Elizabeth Enlow, Megan M Gray, Sara Wallace-Keeshen, Jo Ann D'Agostino, Soraya Abbasi, Scott A Lorch
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of limited health literacy in parents of infants born ≤32 and 0/7 weeks and if health literacy changes during hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-site, prospective cohort study measuring health literacy using the Parent Health Literacy Activities Test, which estimates caregivers' ability to complete tasks such as reading prescription labels and preparing bottles. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric comparison tests and multivariable regression to control for confounders...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Ashraf Kharrat, Daniel Ibarra Rios, Dany E Weisz, Regan E Giesinger, Alan Groves, Junmin Yang, Patrick J McNamara, Prakesh S Shah, Amish Jain
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean (MBP) blood pressures and pulse pressure (PP), and left ventricular output (LVO), a surrogate of systemic blood flow. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study included neonates who underwent targeted neonatal echocardiography (TNE) in 3-tertiary NICUs over 2 years. Associations between LVO and BP components were investigated. Analysis was adjusted for relevant covariates. RESULT: 1060 studies from 485 neonates were included, with a mean GA of 28...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Viral G Jain, Vivek Saroha, Ravi Mangal Patel, Alan Jobe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Mehtab K Sekhon, Stephen J Fenton, Bradley A Yoder
OBJECTIVE: To compare the PF-PCO2 equation-partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2 )/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ) minus partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2 )-to three other tools for postnatal prediction of survival in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of 203 infants with CDH from 1 January 2003 to 30 June 2018. Area under the curve (AUC) analysis was performed for survival and secondary outcomes of survival without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (ECMO) and death despite ECMO...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Thea Tagliaferro, Deepak Jain, Silvia Vanbuskirk, Eduardo Bancalari, Nelson Claure
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy complication characterized by an anti-angiogenic environment. This can affect fetal pulmonary vascular and alveolar development but data of the impact of PE on respiratory outcome in extremely premature infants are inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To determine if PE is associated with an increased risk for severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants. METHODS: Prospectively collected single center data from a cohort of infants born at 23-28 w gestational age between January 2005 and December 2015 were analyzed...
February 15, 2019: Pediatric Research
Matthew R Olm, Patrick T West, Brandon Brooks, Brian A Firek, Robyn Baker, Michael J Morowitz, Jillian F Banfield
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in hospitalized preterm infants, yet little is known about eukaryotic colonization of infants and of the neonatal intensive care unit as a possible source of colonizing strains. This is partly because microbiome studies often utilize bacterial 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing, a technique that is blind to eukaryotic organisms. Knowledge gaps exist regarding the phylogeny and microdiversity of eukaryotes that colonize hospitalized infants, as well as potential reservoirs of eukaryotes in the hospital room built environment...
February 15, 2019: Microbiome
Dhaval R Parekh, Zvonimir Krajcer
Children with branch pulmonary artery stenosis represent a challenging cohort for stenting Premounted stent implantation provides immediate obstruction relief and hemodynamic improvement in infants Planned stent intervention is required to account for somatic growth and next stage palliation in children Continued slenderization of adult coronary and peripheral interventions, stent technology, and delivery systems may allow for more durable solutions in light of patient size.
February 15, 2019: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Pusen Wang, Weitao Que, Mingman Zhang, Xiaoke Dai, Kanru Yu, Chunguang Wang, Zhihai Peng, Lin Zhong
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been used to support organ translations. However, whether it helps remains unclear. This study aimed to present and assess the application of 3D printed liver models in pediatric living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: 3D images were printed to touchable liver models with transparent liver parenchyma, specific colored hepatic vessels, and biliary structures. A total of 30 consecutive recipients were enrolled into the study, 10 were operated with the support of 3D printing (3D printing group) and 20 (Control group) without...
February 15, 2019: Liver Transplantation
Lauren K Slone, Linda B Smith, Chen Yu
Object names are a major component of early vocabularies and learning object names depends on being able to visually recognize objects in the world. However, the fundamental visual challenge of the moment-to-moment variations in object appearances that learners must resolve has received little attention in word learning research. Here we provide the first evidence that image-level object variability matters and may be the link that connects infant object manipulation to vocabulary development. Using head-mounted eye tracking, the present study objectively measured individual differences in the moment-to-moment variability of visual instances of the same object, from infants' first-person views...
February 15, 2019: Developmental Science
Katherine M Delaney, Ronnie Guillet, Robert E Fleming, Yuan Ru, Eva K Pressman, Francoise Vermeylen, Elizabeta Nemeth, Kimberly O O'Brien
BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the fetus prioritizes iron for hemoglobin production over delivery to tissues. However, few studies have evaluated the interrelations between hemoglobin and multiple iron status biomarkers in umbilical cord blood. A full understanding is needed of how these parameters influence each other within cord blood to fully interpret iron and hematologic status at birth. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the determinants of neonatal hemoglobin and assessed the interrelations between hemoglobin, serum iron status indicators, and serum iron regulatory hormones in healthy neonates...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Michael A Pitino, Sharon Unger, Alain Doyen, Yves Pouliot, Susanne Aufreiter, Debbie Stone, Alex Kiss, Deborah L O'Connor
BACKGROUND: When mother's milk is insufficient, pasteurized human donor milk (DM) is the recommended supplement for hospitalized very-low-birth-weight infants. The current method of pasteurization (Holder, 62.5°C, 30 min) negatively affects heat-sensitive nutrients and bioactive proteins. OBJECTIVES: Objectives of this study were to compare changes in DM composition after thermal pasteurization (Holder and flash-heating) and nonthermal methods [UV-C irradiation and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)]...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Harriet Okronipa, Mary Arimond, Rebecca R Young, Charles D Arnold, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Solace M Tamakloe, Helena J Bentil, Maku E Ocansey, Sika M Kumordzie, Brietta M Oaks, Kathryn G Dewey
BACKGROUND: Whether consuming sweet foods early in life affects sweet food preferences and consumption later in childhood is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a slightly sweet lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) early in life would not increase preference for or consumption of sweet items at preschool age. METHODS: We followed up children who had participated in a randomized trial in Ghana in which LNS was provided to 1 group of women during pregnancy and 6 mo postpartum and to their infants from ages 6-18 mo (LNS group)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Sarah B Mulkey, Bobby G Ng, Gilbert L Vezina, Dorothy I Bulas, Lynne A Wolfe, Hudson H Freeze, Carlos R Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Arrest of fetal brain development and the fetal brain disruption sequence describe a severe phenotype involving microcephaly, occipital bone prominence, and scalp rugae. Congenital disorders of glycosylation are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders involved in glycoprotein and glycolipid biosynthesis, which can cause microcephaly and severe neurodevelopmental disability. METHODS: We report an example of fetal microcephaly diagnosed at 36 weeks' gestation with a history of normal fetal biometry at 20 weeks' gestation...
December 24, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Renée R C E Schreurs, Martin E Baumdick, Adrian F Sagebiel, Max Kaufmann, Michal Mokry, Paul L Klarenbeek, Nicola Schaltenberg, Fenja L Steinert, Jorik M van Rijn, Agata Drewniak, Sarah-May M L The, Roel Bakx, Joep P M Derikx, Niek de Vries, Willemijn E Corpeleijn, Steven T Pals, Nicola Gagliani, Manuel A Friese, Sabine Middendorp, Edward E S Nieuwenhuis, Konrad Reinshagen, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek, Johannes B van Goudoever, Madeleine J Bunders
Although the fetal immune system is considered tolerogenic, preterm infants can suffer from severe intestinal inflammation, including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Here, we demonstrate that human fetal intestines predominantly contain tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)+ CD4+ CD69+ T effector memory (Tem) cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing of fetal intestinal CD4+ T cells showed a T helper 1 phenotype and expression of genes mediating epithelial growth and cell cycling. Organoid co-cultures revealed a dose-dependent, TNF-α-mediated effect of fetal intestinal CD4+ T cells on intestinal stem cell (ISC) development, in which low T cell numbers supported epithelial development, whereas high numbers abrogated ISC proliferation...
February 5, 2019: Immunity
Samuel Wong, Honglang Wang, Robert Tepper, Gregory M Sokol, Rebecca Rose
In a prospective study we describe the delivery of small tidal volumes to extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants using a volume-targeted ventilation mode (VTV). Tidal volume delivery was consistent for both ELBW and VLBW infants independent of gestational age, birth weight, and the target volume.
February 12, 2019: Journal of Pediatrics
Rebecca Rebbe, Joseph A Mienko, Emily Brown, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether hospital-level factors contribute to discrepancies in reporting to Child Protective Services (CPS) of infants diagnosed with prenatal substance exposure. STUDY DESIGN: We used a linked dataset of birth, hospital, and CPS records using diagnostic codes (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) to identify infants diagnosed with prenatal substance exposure. Using multilevel models, we examined hospital-level and individual birth-level factors in relation to a report to CPS among those infants prenatally exposed to substances...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Pediatrics
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