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Excessive exercise

Maria Kosma, David R Buchanan
The purpose of this phronetic/pragmatic, mixed-methods study was to integrate quantitative data with qualitative data in examining the complex relations among depression, exercise, screen-viewing time, and life plans among 14 socioeconomically disadvantaged African American young adults. Based on the thematic analysis, the two emerging themes were as follows: life priorities (passing the General Educational Development [GED] test, pursuing profession/career, and being dedicated to church/ministry) and challenges in passing GED examination (e...
February 11, 2019: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
A Lania, L Gianotti, I Gagliardi, M Bondanelli, W Vena, M R Ambrosio
BACKGROUND: Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a form of chronic anovulation not due to identifiable organic causes and with adverse health consequences. The identification of women with this disorder or the precocious identification of women at risk is based on the knowledge of lifestyle risk factors or behaviors such as stress, weight loss, and excessive physical exercise that are known to negatively impact gonadal axis activity. METHODS: In this overview, we described the most common forms of FHA, in particular stress-induced amenorrhea and overtraining-induced amenorrhea...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Paul Mackie, Gary Crowfoot, Heidi Janssen, David W Dunstan, Julie Bernhardt, F Rohan Walker, Amanda Patterson, Robin Callister, Neil J Spratt, Elizabeth Holliday, Coralie English
Excessive sitting is detrimentally associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Frequent breaks in prolonged sitting can improve cardiometabolic responses in non-stroke populations. However, this has not been established in stroke survivors. This study will determine the most effective dose of activity breaks that (i) produce clinically meaningful improvements in mean systolic blood pressure (primary outcome), postprandial glucose, and insulin responses (secondary outcomes), and (ii) is safe and feasible...
March 2019: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Isabelle Carrard, Stéphane Rothen
PURPOSE: The present study explored the potential factors associated with disordered eating behaviors and attitudes in older women. METHODS: Women aged 60-75 years were recruited in the community (n = 203) and completed questionnaires. The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) was used to evaluate disordered eating behaviors and attitudes. The independent variables were BMI, age, importance of appearance, importance of body competence, cognitive reappraisal, and fear of age-related appearance changes...
February 7, 2019: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Parvin Farzanegi, Amir Dana, Zeynab Ebrahimpoor, Mahdieh Asadi, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disorder which is associated with accumulation of fats in the liver. It causes a wide variety of pathological effects such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis, insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The molecular mechanisms that cause the initiation and progression of NAFLD are not fully understood. Oxidative stress (OS) induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation are likely a significant mechanism which can lead to hepatic cell death and tissue injury...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Ina Beintner, Corinna Jacobi
Facing poor long-term outcome and high relapse rates in the treatment of bulimia nervosa, we developed an Internet-based aftercare program for women with severe and chronic bulimia nervosa following inpatient treatment based on previous experiences with self-directed targeted prevention and early intervention programs delivered online. The aim of the present study was to examine adherence to the program in detail, to explore potential variables that predict adherence and to analyze whether adherence affects outcomes...
March 2019: Internet Interventions: the Application of Information Technology in Mental and Behavioural Health
Andrew M Holwerda, Kevin J M Paulussen, Maarten Overkamp, Joy P B Goessens, Irene Fleur Kramer, Will K W H Wodzig, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
Background: Age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass is at least partly attributed to anabolic resistance to food intake. Resistance exercise sensitizes skeletal muscle tissue to the anabolic properties of amino acids. Objective: The present study assessed protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics, whole-body protein balance, and the myofibrillar protein synthetic response to ingestion of different amounts of protein during recovery from resistance exercise in older men...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Julia Schipke, Marius Vital, Anke Schnapper-Isl, Dietmar H Pieper, Christian Mühlfeld
Background: Excess dietary fat and sugar are linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Polyamines such as spermidine are implicated in fat accumulation and may support activity-induced weight loss. Objective: This study tested interventional spermidine supplementation and voluntary activity against fat- and sucrose-induced systemic and gut microbiota changes. Methods: A 3-factorial study design (3 × 2 × 2) was used to test the factors diet, activity, and spermidine...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Isaac Yeboah Addo, Loren Brener, Augustine Danso Asante, John de Wit
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Several studies have attributed excess weight gain after immigration to changes in dietary and physical activity behaviours. However, recognising the main factors that influence post-migration changes in dietary and physical activity behaviours is less clear, particularly among Australian residents of sub-Saharan African (SSA) ancestry. Drawing on acculturation theory, this study examines main factors driving changes in dietary and physical activity behaviours among Australian residents who were born in SSA and provides insight into the extent to which the factors are related to immigration...
February 2, 2019: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Bumsoo Ahn, Rojina Ranjit, Pavithra Premkumar, Gavin Pharaoh, Katarzyna M Piekarz, Satoshi Matsuzaki, Dennis R Claflin, Kaitlyn Riddle, Jennifer Judge, Shylesh Bhaskaran, Kavithalakshmi Satara Natarajan, Erika Barboza, Benjamin Wronowski, Michael Kinter, Kenneth M Humphries, Timothy M Griffin, Willard M Freeman, Arlan Richardson, Susan V Brooks, Holly Van Remmen
BACKGROUND: Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and muscle weakness occur in parallel in multiple pathological conditions. However, the causative role of skeletal muscle mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) on neuromuscular junction (NMJ) morphology and function and muscle weakness has not been directly investigated. METHODS: We generated mice lacking skeletal muscle-specific manganese-superoxide dismutase (mSod2KO) to increase mtROS using a cre-Lox approach driven by human skeletal actin...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Rafael Vidal-Perez, Raúl Franco-Gutiérrez, Alberto J Pérez-Pérez, Virginia Franco-Gutiérrez, Alberto Gascón-Vázquez, Andrea López-López, Ana María Testa-Fernández, Carlos González-Juanatey
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem due to its high prevalence. The relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disease is unclear. Some studies agree that certain conditions associated with obesity, such as physical inactivity or cardiovascular risk factors, are responsible for cardiovascular risk excess among obese people. Carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaques (CP) have been associated with cardiovascular adverse events in healthy populations, and recent data suggest a higher prevalence of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in obese and metabolically unhealthy patients...
January 26, 2019: World Journal of Cardiology
Kayleigh M Beaudry, Michaela C Devries
Women and men store lipid differently within the body with men storing more fat in the android region and women storing more fat in the gynoid region. Fat is predominately stored in adipose tissue as triacylglycerides (TG); however, TG are also stored in other tissues including the liver and skeletal muscle. Excess hepatic TG storage, defined as a TG concentration > 5% of liver weight and known as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is related to the metabolic syndrome. Similarly, elevated skeletal muscle TG, termed intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), are related to insulin resistance in obesity and type II diabetes...
January 31, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
W H K Soon, K J Guelfi, E A Davis, G J Smith, T W Jones, P A Fournier
AIMS: To determine whether pre-exercise ingestion of carbohydrates to maintain stable glycaemia during moderate-intensity exercise results in excessive hyperglycaemia if combined with repeated sprints in individuals with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Eight overnight-fasted people with Type 1 diabetes completed the following four 40-min exercise sessions on separate days in a randomized counterbalanced order under basal insulinaemic conditions: continuous moderate-intensity exercise at 50% V̇O2 peak; intermittent high-intensity exercise (moderate-intensity exercise interspersed with 4-s sprints every 2 min and a final 10-s sprint); continuous moderate-intensity exercise with prior carbohydrate intake (~10 g per person); and intermittent high-intensity exercise with prior carbohydrate intake...
January 30, 2019: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Seungho Ryu, Kyungeun Kim, Yoosoo Chang, Jiin Ahn, Hyo-Joon Yang, Ju Young Jung, Seokkyun Kim, Chong Il Sohn
BACKGROUND: We examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and development of endoscopic intestinal metaplasia (IM). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 142,832 Korean adults free of endoscopic IM and atrophic gastritis (AG) who underwent upper endoscopy at baseline and subsequent visits and were followed for up to 5 years. A parametric proportional hazards model was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident IM...
January 30, 2019: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Felipe Novillo, Simon Van Eyndhoven, Jonathan Moeyersons, Jan Bogaert, Guido Claessen, André La Gerche, Sabine Van Huffel, Piet Claus
We propose and evaluate a method to estimate a respiratory signal from ungated cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images. 
 Ungated CMR images were acquired in 5 subjects who performed exercise at different intensity levels under different physiological conditions while breathing freely. The respiratory motion was estimated by applying principal components analysis (PCA). A sign correction procedure was developed to correctly define inspiration and expiration, based on either tracking of the diaphragmatic motion or estimation of the lung volume or a combination of both...
January 29, 2019: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Kia Skrine Jeffers, Mary Cadogan, MarySue V Heilemann, Linda R Phillips
Some researchers attribute the excess rates of diabetes complications among African American older adults compared to other racial/ethnic subgroups to low diabetes knowledge. Diabetes knowledge measures have a biomedical orientation, including knowledge of glycemic control and using diet and exercise to control blood sugar. Measures do not assess informal knowledge that patients obtain outside of the clinical environment. The distinction between formal and informal knowledge is meaningful for cultural groups such as African American individuals who have historically transferred knowledge about maintaining their health "through the grapevine...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
Michal Kumstát, Tomáš Hlinský, Ivan Struhár, Andy Thomas
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (SB) and sodium citrate (SC) on 400 m high-intensity swimming performance and blood responses. Six nationally ranked male swimmers (20.7 ± 2.1 yrs; 184 ± 6 cm; 79.9 ± 3.9 kg; 10.6 ± 1% body fat) participated in a double blinded, placebo controlled crossover trial. Ninety minutes after consuming SB (0.3 g·kg-1 ), SC (0.3 g·kg-1 ) or a placebo (PL) participants completed a single 400-m freestyle maximal test on three consecutive days...
December 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Jacopo Lamanna, Simone Sulpizio, Mattia Ferro, Riccardo Martoni, Jubin Abutalebi, Antonio Malgaroli
Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a disorder with a dramatic impact on both the individual and society. Besides severe weight loss, excessive physical exercise and cognitive disturbances can be present in patients with AN as primary symptoms of the pathology or as secondary effects induced by physical and metabolic alterations. Mechanistic research in this field has taken advantage of a well characterized animal model, the activity-based anorexia model (ABA). ABA rodents and subjects with AN show clear behavioral and physiological similarities, but a throughout neurocognitive assessment of the model is still missing...
January 22, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Katarina T Borer
Fat gain in our United States (US) environment of over-abundant, convenient, and palatable food is associated with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and increased mortality. Fuller understanding of physiological and environmental challenges to healthy weight maintenance could help prevent these morbidities. Human physiological limitations that permit development of obesity include a predilection to overeat palatable diets, inability to directly detect energy eaten or expended, a large capacity for fat storage, and the difficulty of losing body fat...
January 22, 2019: Nutrients
Joanna Bowtell, Vincent Kelly
Polyphenols are characterised structurally by two or more hydroxyl groups attached to one or more benzene rings, and provide the taste and colour characteristics of fruits and vegetables. They are radical scavengers and metal chelators, but due to their low concentration in biological fluids in vivo their antioxidant properties seem to be related to enhanced endogenous antioxidant capacity induced via signalling through the Nrf2 pathway. Polyphenols also seem to possess anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to enhance vascular function via nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms...
January 22, 2019: Sports Medicine
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