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“Precision medicine”

Lise Charuaud, Emilie Jardé, Anne Jaffrézic, Marine Liotaud, Quentin Goyat, Fabien Mercier, Barbara Le Bot
In intensive livestock areas, veterinary pharmaceutical residues (VPRs) can occur in water resources, but also in tap water because treatment processes are not designed to remove these contaminants. The main objective of this study is to assess the occurrence of VPRs in water resources and tap waters in Brittany. As several identical compounds are used in both veterinary and human medicine, a toolbox (stanols and pharmaceuticals) is used to help determine the origin of contamination in the case of mixed-use molecules...
January 24, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Caitlin Murphy, Andrea Muscat, David Ashley, Violet Mukaro, Linda West, Yang Liao, David Chisanga, Wei Shi, Ian Collins, Sally Baron-Hay, Sujata Patil, Geoffrey Lindeman, Mustafa Khasraw
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the feasibility of achieving high response rates in stage II or III breast cancer by tailoring neoadjuvant therapy using clinical and histopathological features and the Oncotype DX Breast Recurrence Score. Genomic determinants of response and resistance were also explored. PATIENTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Fifty-one patients were enrolled. The primary cohort comprised 40 patients: 15 human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-amplified; 15 triple-negative (TNBC); and ten hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-non-amplified tumours; with recurrence scores ≥25...
2019: PloS One
Peter J Schwartz, Luca Sala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Circulation Research
Juliane Schulz, Carina Knappe, Christian Graetz, Louisa Mewes, Kathrin Türk, Anna K Black, Wolfgang Lieb, Arne S Schäfer, Karim M Fawzy El-Sayed, Christof E Dörfer, Stefan Schreiber, Matthias Laudes, Dominik M Schulte
AIM: Recombinant secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (sFRP5) improved periodontal status in mice. Thus, this study aimed to investigate this finding in human periodontitis using an epidemiological approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: sFRP5 and wnt5a concentrations were determined in human serum from the Food Chain Plus cohort using ELISAs. 128 patients with periodontitis and tooth loss and 245 patients with periodontitis without tooth loss were compared to 373 sex-, smoker-, age- and BMI-matched individuals in a nested case-control design...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Xin Li, Michael Enzerra, Daniel Arnold Smith, Amir Ata Rahnemai-Azar, Elias Kikano, Nikhil H Ramaiya
Until recently, the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), a malignancy classically described as having a robust response to first-line therapy with near-universal recurrence, has remained relatively unchanged. Advancements in the management of SCLC have lagged behind those seen for non-small cell lung cancers. As the era of precision medicine and targeted immunotherapy evolves, radiologists must be familiar with the modern treatment paradigms of SCLC and associated imaging patterns, including classic and nonclassic appearances of treatment complications...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Marianne Skov, Christine Rønne Hansen, Tacjana Pressler
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a severe, monogenic, autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator) gene, where disturbed chloride and bicarbonate transportation in epithelial cells results in a multiorgan disease with primarily pulmonary infections and pancreatic insufficiency. In 1968, the Copenhagen CF Center was established, and centralized care of CF patients with monthly control was introduced. Close monitoring and treatment of Pseudomonas lung infection as well as segregation of patients with different infection status improved the clinical outcome as well as survival...
February 14, 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
John Inge Johnsen, Cecilia Dyberg, Malin Wickström
Neuroblastoma is a neural crest derived malignancy of the peripheral nervous system and is the most common and deadliest tumor of infancy. It is characterized by clinical heterogeneity with a disease spectrum ranging from spontaneous regression without any medical intervention to treatment resistant tumors with metastatic spread and poor patient survival. The events that lead to the development of neuroblastoma from the neural crest have not been fully elucidated. Here we discuss factors and processes within the neural crest that when dysregulated have the potential to be initiators or drivers of neuroblastoma development...
2019: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Anil Dangi, Shuangjin Yu, Xunrong Luo
Newly emerging technologies are rapidly changing conventional approaches to organ transplantation. In the modern era, the key challenges to transplantation include (1) how to best individualize and possibly eliminate the need for life-long immunosuppression and (2) how to expand the donor pool suitable for human transplantation. This article aims to provide readers with an updated review of three new technologies that address these challenges. First, single-cell RNA sequencing technology is rapidly evolving and has recently been employed in settings related to transplantation...
February 13, 2019: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Ramón M Almela, Agustina Ansón
In dogs, melanomas are relatively common tumors and the most common form of oral malignancy. Biological behavior is highly variable, usually aggressive, and frequently metastatic, with reported survival times of three months for oral or mucosal melanomas in advanced disease stages. Classical clinical management remains challenging; thus, novel and more efficacious treatment strategies are needed. Evidence-based medicine supports the role of the immune system to treat neoplastic diseases. Besides, immunotherapy offers the possibility of a precise medicinal approach to treat cancer...
February 12, 2019: Veterinary Sciences
Bernhard Schermer, Thomas Benzing
The emergence of genome editing technologies can be regarded as one of the most groundbreaking revolutions in the history of science. Modern genome editing allows the introduction of precise mutations into the genome of virtually all cells and organisms without leaving any additional trace. Undoubtedly, genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9, often casually referred to as "genetic scissors", will revolutionize medical research and development. However, at the same time it creates a great need for ethical considerations as it might hold risks for both people and the environment that cannot yet be fully assessed...
February 2019: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Shamus P Keeler, Benjamin J Gerovac, Kangyun Wu, Xinyu Wang, Joshua R Chartock, Derek E Byers, Arthur G Romero, Michael J Holtzman
New studies of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are revealing the key role of airway epithelial cells and innate immune cells in the initiation, exacerbation, and progression of airway disease. An emerging scheme focuses on expansion of airway progenitor epithelial cells that feed forward for a type 2 immune response and consequent IL-13-driven mucus production that is linked to the morbidity and mortality of COPD. Analysis of human airway progenitor epithelial cells and airway tissue shows that IL-13 signaling to MUC5AC mucin gene expression relies on specific activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 13, providing a druggable target for attenuating mucus production in the setting of viral infection and other inhaled stimuli of airway inflammation...
December 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
T Vogel, N Kohn, D Ostler, N Marahrens, N Samm, A Jell, M Kranzfelder, D Wilhelm, H Friess, H Feußner
BACKGROUND: The "magic triangle" in surgery and other disciplines consists of the demand for increasingly gentler forms of treatment, simultaneous cost reduction and the fundamental primacy of improving the quality of results. The digitalization of medicine offers a promising opportunity to do justice to this, also in the sense of "Surgery 4.0". The aim is to create a cognitive, collaborative diagnostics and treatment environment to support the surgeon. METHODS: In the sense of a "theory building" for analysis and planning, process modeling is the cornerstone for modern treatment planning...
February 13, 2019: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Marina Z Barbosa, Daniel S Zylbersztejn, Leandro A de Mattos, Luiz F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: 3D printing has wide application in medicine while it provides customizability and precision for anatomical model development. Our aims were to perform a systematic review and to explore the use of 3D printing applications on human reproduction and reproductive surgery. METHODS: We have performed a systematic review in PubMed database to assess previous publications within 3D printing in human reproduction and gynecology. We have developed 3D models according to patients' magnetic resonance images (MRI)...
February 12, 2019: Minerva Ginecologica
Shu-Hai Chen, Bing-Yuan Zhang, Bin Zhou, Cheng-Zhan Zhu, Le-Qi Sun, Yu-Jie Feng
Perineural invasion (PNI) can be found in a variety of malignant tumors. It is a sign of tumor metastasis and invasion and portends the poor prognosis of patients. The pathological description and clinical significance of PNI are clearly understood, but exploration of the underlying molecular mechanism is ongoing. It was previously thought that the low-resistance channel in the anatomic region led to the occurrence of PNI. However, with rapid development of precision medicine and molecular biology, we have gradually realized that the occurrence of PNI is not the result of a single factor...
2019: American Journal of Cancer Research
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, K Roseberry, K C Soe, J Rogers, F Khan, T Jones, S Judd, M A McCormick, A R Wessel, A Williams, S M Kurian, F A White
We endeavored to identify objective blood biomarkers for pain, a subjective sensation with a biological basis, using a stepwise discovery, prioritization, validation, and testing in independent cohorts design. We studied psychiatric patients, a high risk group for co-morbid pain disorders and increased perception of pain. For discovery, we used a powerful within-subject longitudinal design. We were successful in identifying blood gene expression biomarkers that were predictive of pain state, and of future emergency department (ED) visits for pain, more so when personalized by gender and diagnosis...
February 12, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
Michael J Wilde, Rebecca L Cordell, Dahlia Salman, Bo Zhao, Wadah Ibrahim, Luke Bryant, Dorota Ruszkiewicz, Amisha Singapuri, Robert C Free, Erol A Gaillard, Caroline Beardsmore, C L Paul Thomas, Chris E Brightling, Salman Siddiqui, Paul S Monks
Precision medicine has spurred new innovations in molecular pathology leading to recent advances in the analysis of exhaled breath as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detected in exhaled breath have the potential to reveal a wealth of chemical and metabolomic information. This study describes the development of a method for the analysis of breath, based on automated thermal desorption (TD) combined with flow modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) with dual flame ionisation and quadrupole mass spectrometric detection (FID and qMS)...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. A
Weerachai Pipatrattanaseree, Arunporn Itharat, Nichamon Mukkasombut, Ubonwan Saesiw
BACKGROUND: The root of Baliospermum montanum has been used as an ingredient of traditional Thai medicines for the treatments of several diseases including itching eczema, muscle and joint inflammation, and cancer. Few studies have been done on phytochemical components of this root. In this study, we isolated major compounds of the crude ethanolic extract of B. montanum root and developed and validated a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of its major components...
February 12, 2019: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Enrico Capobianco
Changes and transformations enabled by Big Data have direct effects on Translational Medicine. At one end, superior precision is expected from a more data-intensive and individualized medicine, thus accelerating scientific discovery and innovation (in diagnosis, therapy, disease management etc.). At the other end, the scientific method needs to adapt to the increased diversity that data present, and this can be beneficial because potentially revealing greater details of how a disease manifests and progresses...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Translational Medicine
Jia Liu, Hanqing Liu, Qingqi Zeng
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of naringenin on the pharmacokinetics of ibrutinib in rats. A simple and sensitive quantitation method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-Q-Exactive Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for t determination of ibrutinib in rat plasma. The samples were extracted using ethyl acetate containing 1% triethylamine and the separated on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column with acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid as mobile phase...
February 12, 2019: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Seungok Lee, Chui Mei Ong, Yu Zhang, Alan H B Wu
Background Biological variation studies have shown that the complete blood count (CBC) has narrow within-individual variation and wide group variation, indicating that the use of reference intervals (RIs) is challenging. The aim of this study was to examine differences in CBC RIs according to race/ethnicity in a multiethnic population at a hospital in San Francisco in hopes of improving the medical utility of CBC testing. Methods Subject data were obtained by screening CBC results from the medical records of outpatients meeting certain criteria who visited Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital from April 2017 to January 2018...
February 12, 2019: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
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