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Water electrolyte

Haseong Kim, Hyojung Bae, Seung Wan Bang, Seyoung Kim, Sang Hyun Lee, Sang-Wan Ryu, Jun-Seok Ha
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is one of the most promising hydrogen production methods because of its high efficiency, renewable resources and harmless by-products. Gallium nitride (GaN) is suitable for PEC water splitting because it has excellent stability in electrolyte and band gap energy which straddles the redox potential of water (Vredox = 1.23 V). These characteristics allow this material to split water stably without external bias. However, the stability of GaN is still not sufficient for practical applications...
February 18, 2019: Optics Express
Huafan Zhang, Mohamed Ebaid, Jeremy Tan, Guangyu Liu, Jung-Wook Min, Tien Khee Ng, Boon S Ooi
InGaN-based nanowires (NWs) have been investigated as efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting devices. In this work, the InGaN/GaN NWs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) having InGaN segments on top of GaN seeds. Three axial heterojunction structures were constructed with different doping types and levels, namely n-InGaN/n-GaN NWs, undoped (u)-InGaN/p-GaN NWs, and p-InGaN/p-GaN NWs. With the carrier concentrations estimated by Mott-Schottky measurements, a PC1D simulation further confirmed the band structures of the three heterojunctions...
February 18, 2019: Optics Express
Tadeja Janc, Vojko Vlachy, Miha Lukšič
Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to determine the temperature and salt concentration dependence of the enthalpy of mixing, Δmix H , of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous buffer solutions with several low molecular weight salts. Three buffers were used: acetate ( p H = 4.0), MOPS (7.2), and borate (9.2). Since the isoionic point of BSA is at p I ≈ 4.7, the net charge of BSA in acetate buffer was positive (≈ +20), while in the other two buffer solutions it was negative (≈ -15 in MOPS and ≈ -25 in borate)...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Liquids
Qianbin Wang, Bojie Xu, Qing Hao, Dong Wang, Huan Liu, Lei Jiang
Materials with in situ reversible wettability have attractive properties but remain a challenge to use since the inverse process of liquid spreading is normally energetically unfavorable. Here, we propose a general electrochemical strategy that enables the in situ reversible superwetting transition between underwater superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity by constructing a binary textured surface. Taking the copper/tin system as an example, the surface energy of the copper electrode can be lowered significantly by electrodeposited tin, and be brought back to the initial high-energy state as a result of dissolving tin by removing the potential...
March 14, 2019: Nature Communications
Ailong Li, Hideshi Ooka, Nadège Bonnet, Toru Hayashi, Yimeng Sun, Qike Jiang, Can Li, Hongxian Han, Ryuhei Nakamura
Efficient, earth-abundant, and acid-stable catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are missing pieces for the production of hydrogen via water electrolysis. Here, we report how the limitations on the stability of 3d-metal materials can be overcome by the spectroscopic identification of stable potential windows in which the OER can be catalyzed efficiently while simultaneously suppressing deactivation pathways. We demonstrate the benefits of this approach using gamma manganese oxide (γ-MnO2 ), which shows no signs of deactivation even after 8000 h of electrolysis at a pH of 2...
March 14, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Hyun-Ji Kim, Charles Nkufi Tango, Ramachandran Chelliah, Deog-Hwan Oh
The Influence of water source on the production of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and its sanitization efficacy were investigated. Two different water sources (tap water (TW) and underground water (UGW)) were applied to produce slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) at same setting current, with similar electrolyte flow rate (EFR) and concentration. Properties of SAEW were evaluated based on pH, Available chlorine concentration (ACC) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP). Methods for the optimization of SAEW production process was examined to obtain high ACC value by implanting different types of electrolytes...
March 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Héctor Salas, Carmen Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Víctor López-Grimau, Mercedes Vilaseca
Optical brighteners (OBs) are colorless fluorescent dyes, widely used in industry to improve whiteness in materials. Nearly 80% of all OBs in the market are derivatives of stilbene. They absorb the near-ultraviolet light and re-emit most of it in the blue range as visible fluorescence. OBs are commonly applied on textiles, detergents, paper and plastic products, among others. OBs have a low degradation ratio. In biological plants, they can only be partially removed by adsorption into the sludge and a tertiary treatment could be required to fully remove them...
March 7, 2019: Materials
Victoria Brusa, Viviana Restovich, Marcelo Signorini, Daniela Pugin, Lucía Galli, Vanesa Ruíz Díaz, Romina Arias, Gerardo A Leotta
Antimicrobial treatments could help to decrease the transmission of microorganisms to beef carcasses and abattoir environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in reducing Shiga toxin genes ( stx1 and stx2 ) presence in a commercial abattoir. Intervention measures included the application of electrolytically generated hypochlorous acid to steer pens (experiment 1), chlorinated water, electrolytically generated hypochlorous acid, and isoclor to steer pens (experiment 2), electrolytically generated hypochlorous acid to knocking pens (experiment 3), and aqueous ozone and electrolytically generated hypochlorous acid onto beef carcasses (experiment 4)...
March 12, 2019: Food Science and Technology International
Aminat Uzdenova
Flow-through electrodialysis membrane cells are widely used in water purification and the processing of agricultural products (milk, wine, etc.). In the research and operating practice of such systems, a significant place is occupied by a galvanodynamic (or galvanostatic) mode. 2D mathematical modelling of ion transfer in the galvanodynamic mode requires solving the problem of setting the average current density equal to a certain value, while the current density distribution in the system is uneven. This article develops a 2D mathematical model of the overlimiting transfer enhanced by electroconvection in a flow-through electrodialysis cell in the galvanodynamic mode...
March 11, 2019: Membranes
Zi Wang, Peixun Li, Kun Ma, Yao Chen, Mario Campana, Jeffrey Penfold, Robert K Thomas, David W Roberts, Hui Xu, Jordan T Petkov, Zifeng Yan
The transition from monolayer to multilayer adsorption at the air-water interface in the presence of multivalent counterions has been demonstrated for a limited range of anionic surfactants which exhibit increased tolerance to precipitation in the presence of multivalent counterions. Understanding the role of molecular structure in determining the transition to surface ordering is an important aspect of the phenomenon. The focus of the paper is on the alkyl ester sulfonate, AES, surfactants; a promising group of anionic surfactants, with the potential for improved performance and biocompatibility...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Chan Woo Lee, Chanyeon Kim, Byoung Koun Min
Electrochemical conversion of CO2 and water to valuable chemicals and fuels is one of the promising alternatives to replace fossil fuel-based processes in realizing a carbon-neutral cycle. For practical application of such technologies, suppressing hydrogen evolution reaction and facilitating the activation of stable CO2 molecules still remain major challenges. Furthermore, high production selectivity toward high-value chemicals such as ethylene, ethanol, and even n-propanol is also not easy task to achieve...
March 12, 2019: Nano Convergence
German Luque-Caballero, Julia Maldonado-Valderrama, Manuel Quesada-Pérez, Alberto Martín-Molina
Anionic lipids are increasingly being used in lipoplexes for synthetic gene vectors as an alternative to cationic lipids. This is primarily due to their lower toxicity, which makes them biocompatible and adaptable to be tissue specific. However, anionic lipoplexes require the presence of multivalent cations to promote the electrostatic attraction between DNA and anionic lipid mono- and bilayers. In this work we provide for the first time experimental results of the adsorption of linear DNA onto anionic/zwitterionic lipid monolayers without any addition of cations...
March 1, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jui-Yen Lin, Agnes Raharjo, Li-Hsin Hsu, Yu-Jen Shih, Yao-Hui Huang
Tetrafluoroborate anion (BF4 - ) is found in the streams of flue-gas desulfurization and borosilicate glasses etching which deteriorates water quality through slow hydrolysis into boric acid and fluoride. Decomposition and electrocoagulation (EC) of BF4 - were studied using metallic aluminum as the sacrificial electrode. The dissolved Al(III) from the anode could efficiently decompose BF4 - in forms of fluoroaluminate complexes, and the derived boric acid and fluoride ion were removed by sweep flocculation...
February 27, 2019: Water Research
Juanjuan Liu, Stacey Marie Louie, Christopher Pham, Chong Dai, Dongli Liang, Yandi Hu
To better understand the fate and transport of ferrihydrite nanoparticles (FNPs), which carry many contaminants in natural and engineered aquatic environments, the aggregation of FNPs was systematically investigated in this study. The pH isoelectric point (pHIEP ), surface zeta potential, and particle size evolutions of FNPs were measured under varied aqueous conditions using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The influence of pH (5.0 ± 0.1 and 7.0 ± 0.1), ionic strength (IS), electrolytes (NaCl, CaCl2 and Na2 SO4 ), and organics (humic acid, fulvic acid and CH3 COONa) on the aggregation behaviors of FNPs were explored...
March 4, 2019: Environmental Research
Judith Jacobi
Endocrine emergencies are frequent in critically ill patients and may be the cause of admission or can be secondary to other critical illness. The ability to anticipate endocrine abnormalities such as adrenal excess or , hypothyroidism, can mitigate their duration and severity. Hyperglycemic crisis may trigger hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admission and may be life threatening. Recognition and safe treatment of severe conditions such as acute adrenal insufficiency, thyroid crisis, and hypoglycemia and hyperglycemic crisis may be lifesaving...
March 10, 2019: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Ruihua Zhou, Sufeng Wei, Yan Liu, Nan Gao, Guoyong Wang, Jianshe Lian, Qing Jiang
It is well-known that in neutral and acidic aqueous electrolytes, MoS2 monolayers can store charges by adsorption of cations on to the electrode-electrolyte interface as its analog of graphene. Restricted by its low conductivity and the charge storage mechanism, the electrochemical performance of MoS2 monolayer supercapacitor electrode is not satisfactory. It is reported here that water bilayers absorbed on MoS2 monolayers can be involved in charge storage. One proton of each absorbed water molecule can intercalate/de-intercalate the water bilayers during charging/discharging in the alkaline aqueous electrolyte...
March 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
H Berthoumieux, F Paillusson
The goal of this work is to propose a simple continuous model that captures the dielectric properties of water at the nanometric scale. We write an electrostatic energy as a functional of the polarisation field containing a term in P4 and non-local Gaussian terms. Such a hamiltonian can reproduce two key properties of water: the saturation of the polarisation response of water in the presence of a strong electrostatic field and the nanometric dipolar correlations of the solvent molecules modifying the long range van der waals interaction...
March 7, 2019: Journal of Chemical Physics
Qichao Zhang, Min Zheng, Yanliang Huang, Hans Joerg Kunte, Xiutong Wang, Yuemiao Liu, Chuanbo Zheng
The container of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) being in deep geological disposal, the backfill material is needed to serve as the second defense for HLRW and the highly compacted bentonite is generally selected. As the time goes, the underground water will infiltrate the backfill, causing the corrosion of materials for the building of containers in the formed electrolyte. Carbon steel, titanium and its alloy are the potential candidate materials for the fabrication of HLRW containers. The current investigation aims at assessing the safety of HLRW container in deep geological disposal for hundreds of thousands of years and facilitating the material selection for future container fabrication by estimating their corrosion behavior in compacted bentonite with a series of moisture content at different temperatures through electrochemical methods including open circuit potential (OCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization curve (PC) measurements...
March 1, 2019: Scientific Reports
Claudia Solá-Gutiérrez, Sophie Schröder, M Fresnedo San Román, Inmaculada Ortiz
5-Chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol (TCS) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) widely used in different consumer goods. Its recalcitrant nature demands the application of effective remediation technologies in order to avoid the negative environmental impact associated to the discharge of contaminated waters. Although advanced oxidation technologies have been considered the best alternative to destroy bio-recalcitrant compounds, the likely formation of high toxicity byproducts must be analysed before large-scale deployment...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Mo Qiao, Guillermo A Ferrero, Leticia Fernández Velasco, Wei Vern Hor, Yan Yang, Hui Luo, Peter Lodewyckx, Antonio B Fuertes, Marta Sevilla, Maria-Magdalena Titirici
The oxygen reduction reaction in aqueous media plays a critical role in sustainable and clean energy technologies such as Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) and Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC). In this work we present a new concept to improve the ORR performance by engineering the interface reaction at the electrocatalyst-electrolyte-oxygen triple-phase boundary (TPB) using a protic and hydrophobic ionic liquid and demonstrate the wide and general applicability of this concept to several Pt-free catalysts. Two catalysts, a Fe-N co-doped and a metal-free N-doped carbon electrocatalysts are used as proof of concept...
February 28, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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