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Hayley Kimball, Matthew Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Tara De Paoli, Audrey McKinlay, Isabel Krug
The current study tested a new interpersonal model of disordered eating behaviours, whereby maladaptive schemas and theory of mind decoding (ToM-decoding) were related with disordered eating attitudes (body dissatisfaction) and behaviours (binging/purging and food restriction) through the mediating variable appearance-based rejection-sensitivity. A secondary aim was to test whether this model differed between two cultural groups: Caucasian Australian women (N = 197, ages ranging 17-43, M = 19.25, SD = 3...
February 28, 2019: Psychiatry Research
Christopher P Foran, Damon H Clark, Reynold Henry, Priti Lalchandani, Dennis Y Kim, Brant A Putnam, Morgan Schellenberg, Christianne J Lane, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios G Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Gunshot wound (GSW) injuries present a unique surgical challenge. This study explored the financial and clinical burdens of GSW victims across two Los Angeles County Level I trauma centers over the last 12 years and compared them to other forms of interpersonal injury (OIPI). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study of patients presenting as the victim GSW and OIPI (defined as combined stab wound or blunt assault) between 1/1/2006 until 3/30/2018 at LAC+USC Medical Center (LAC+USC) and Harbor UCLA Medical Center (HUCLA)...
March 13, 2019: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Michał Skrzypek, Dorota Turska, Agnieszka Marzec, Karolina Szczygieł
BACKGROUND: Pharmacists implementing and carrying out Pharmaceutical Care (PhC) need to possess interpersonal ("soft") competencies, similar to physicians, as well as the personality predisposition necessary to maintain effective interpersonal communication involved in a therapeutic relationship. This thesis agrees with John L. Holland's congruence theory according to which the decision to take up a given profession is a specific expression of personality. OBJECTIVES: The presented study aims to examine the premise that a specific personality may be a predictor for the career choices made by pharmacy students that entail building a therapeutic relationship with the patient as part of practising PhC...
March 8, 2019: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Janeane Dart, Louise McCall, Susan Ash, Merran Blair, Cliona Twohig, Claire Palermo
BACKGROUND: Professionalism of health care practitioners is central to safe and ethical health care, and forms part of the trust that the public places in health care practitioners. Lapses in professionalism in health care present considerable challenges and can have serious consequences and outcomes. Teaching, learning, and assessing professionalism is an important component of nutrition and dietetics education. There is scant peer-reviewed published research related to professionalism in nutrition and dietetics...
March 13, 2019: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Aikaterini Giazkoulidou, Lampros Messinis, Grigorios Nasios
Cognitive decline has been widely reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) despite its clinical heterogeneity, at all stages and in all subtypes of the disease. Deficits are most commonly present in attention, processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency and executive function. However, MS patients also show decreased performance in tasks related to social cognition, i.e. mental operations thatdrive interpersonal skills such as social perception, empathy and theory of mind. Social cognitive deficits are an underestimated but important aspect of impairment in MS, reflecting how people process, store, and apply information in social interactions...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Jennifer Hong, Laura Aspey, Gaobin Bao, Tamara Haynes, S Sam Lim, Cristina Drenkard
OBJECTIVES: Depression may occur in up to 30% of individuals with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE), many of whom may also have systemic manifestations. Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE) conditions are less likely to present systemic involvement than acute and subacute conditions but more often cause permanent scarring and dyspigmentation. However, little is known about depression in those who have CCLE confined to the skin (primary CCLE). As African Americans are at high risk for primary CCLE and depression, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of and explore the risk factors for depression in a population-based cohort of predominantly Black patients with primary CCLE...
March 15, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Ting Yue, Ruyin Long, Junli Liu, Haiwen Liu, Hong Chen
With the improvement of living quality and the increase of energy consumption of residents, their energy conservation behavior (ECB) plays an increasingly important role in energy conservation and emission reduction. As a kind of environmental behavior, ECB of residents is a complicated process. In this paper, ECB is divided into four types, considering habit adjustment, quality threshold, efficiency investment, and interpersonal facilitation. A comprehensive conceptual framework is built, adding perception about energy conservation results (PER) and contextual factors from a new perspective...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jesse Lee Wilde, David J A Dozois
Difficulties in romantic relationships are a prominent part of the disorder for many individuals with depression. Researchers have called for an integration of interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral theories to better understand the role of relational difficulties in depression. In this article, a novel theoretical framework (the dyadic partner-schema model) is presented. This model illustrates a potential pathway from underlying "partner-schema" structures to romantic relationship distress and depressive affect...
March 6, 2019: Clinical Psychology Review
James D Whitworth, Diane Scotland-Coogan, Tracy Wharton
Service dog programs are increasingly being explored as complementary or alternative interventions for military veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This paper details the results of a control group, pre-and-post pilot investigation evaluating the use of a 14-week service dog training program for veterans in central Florida. Thirty veterans diagnosed with PTSD, 15 in the intervention group and 15 in the waitlist controlled group, completed all pretests and posttests measures, consisting of the 136-item Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 and the 36-item World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Schedule 2...
April 2019: Social Work in Health Care
Moti Tolera Jalu, Abdurehman Ahmed, Abdiwahab Hashi, Alula Tekilu
INTRODUCTION: Health-seeking behaviours are influenced by internal and external contributing factors. Internal factors include attitudes, beliefs and core values, life adaptation skills, psychological disposition whereas external factors include social support, media, socio-cultural, political, economic and biological aspects, health care systems, environmental stressors and societal laws and regulations. This study was meant to explore factors affecting health-seeking behaviors in the Somali regional state of Ethiopia...
2019: PloS One
Zahra Chegini, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Edris Kakemam
BACKGROUND: Turnover intention is a frequent event in almost all institutions and is associated with unfavourable consequences for employees. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between occupational stress, quality of working life and turnover intention amongst nurses working in critical care units in Iran. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey design was used. METHOD: The study was conducted in the critical care units of 10 hospitals in Tabriz, Iran, between July and November 2017 using a sample of 203 nurses...
March 14, 2019: Nursing in Critical Care
Kobi Snitz, Ofer Perl, Danielle Honigstein, Lavi Secundo, Aharon Ravia, Adi Yablonka, Yaara Endevelt-Shapira, Noam Sobel
A common goal in olfaction research is modeling the link between odorant structure and odor perception. Such modeling efforts require large datasets on olfactory perception, yet only a few of these are publicly and freely available. Given that individual odor perception may be informative on personal makeup and interpersonal relationships, we hypothesized that people would gladly provide olfactory perceptual estimates in the context of an odor-based social network. We developed a web-based infrastructure for such a network we called SmellSpace, and distributed 10,000 scratch-and-sniff registration booklets each containing a subset of 12 out of 35 microencapsulated odorants...
March 11, 2019: Chemical Senses
Luz M Garcini, Michelle A Chen, Ryan L Brown, Thania Galvan, Levi Saucedo, Jodi A Berger Cardoso, Christopher P Fagundes
Objective: This study aimed to assess for the prevalence of interpersonal discrimination among undocumented Mexican immigrants residing in high-risk neighborhoods near the CaliforniaMexico border, identify relevant vulnerabilities, and determine its association with clinically significant psychological distress after controlling for socio-demographics, immigration characteristics, and history of trauma. Method: Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) was used in this cross-sectional study to collect and analyze data from clinical interviews with 246 undocumented Mexican immigrants...
November 2018: Psychology of Violence
Martin Bohus, Christian Schmahl, Thomas Fydrich, Regina Steil, Meike Müller-Engelmann, Julia Herzog, Petra Ludäscher, Nikolaus Kleindienst, Kathlen Priebe
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childhood abuse (CA) is often related to severe co-occurring psychopathology, such as symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The ICD-11 has included Complex PTSD as a new diagnosis, which is defined by PTSD symptoms plus disturbances in emotion regulation, self-concept, and interpersonal relationships. Unfortunately, the empirical database on psychosocial treatments for survivors of CA is quite limited. Furthermore, the few existing studies often have either excluded subjects with self-harm behaviour and suicidal ideation - which is common behaviour in subjects suffering from Complex PTSD...
2019: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Ariel Kor, Steven Pirutinsky, Mario Mikulincer, Anat Shoshani, Lisa Miller
Using data from 1,352 middle-school Israeli adolescents, the current study examines the interface of spirituality and character strengths and its longitudinal contribution to subjective well-being and prosociality. Participants were approached three times over a 14-months period and completed measures of character strengths, spirituality, subjective well-being (positive emotions, life satisfaction), and prosociality. Findings revealed a fourth-factor structure of character strengths that included the typical tripartite classification of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intellectual strengths together with spirituality emerging as a statistically autonomous factor...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Rogier Aäron Gaiser, Asif Halimi, Hassan Alkharaan, Liyan Lu, Haleh Davanian, Katie Healy, Luisa W Hugerth, Zeeshan Ateeb, Roberto Valente, Carlos Fernández Moro, Marco Del Chiaro, Margaret Sällberg Chen
OBJECTIVES: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are pancreatic cysts that can progress to invasive pancreatic cancer. Associations between oncogenesis and oral microbiome alterations have been reported. This study aims to investigate a potential intracystic pancreatic microbiome in a pancreatic cystic neoplasm (PCN) surgery patient cohort. DESIGN: Paired cyst fluid and plasma were collected at pancreatic surgery from patients with suspected PCN (n=105)...
March 14, 2019: Gut
G Bonnard, F Cohen-Aubart, O Steichen, A Bourgarit, S Abad, B Ranque, J Pouchot, A Dossier, A Espitia-Thibault, P Jego, B Granel, D Launay, E Rivière, C Le Jeunne, L Mouthon, P Pottier
INTRODUCTION: Though several assessment tools for resident professional skills based on workplace direct observation have been validated, they remain scarcely used in France. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and the validity of a workbook including several assessment forms for different components of the professional competency. METHODS: Three assessment forms have been tested over a period of 6 months in a multicentric study including 12 French internal medicine departments: the French version of the mini-CEX, an interpersonal skills assessment form (OD_CR) and the multisource feedback form (E_360)...
March 11, 2019: La Revue de Médecine Interne
Alison Markwick, Zahid Ansari, Darren Clinch, John McNeil
BACKGROUND: Racism is a key determinant of the health of Indigenous Australians that may explain the unremitting gap in health and socioeconomic outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. We quantified the population-based prevalence of experiences of racism of Indigenous adults in the Australian state of Victoria and investigated whether this was independent of social determinants and lifestyle risk factors. METHODS: We combined data from the 2011, 2012 and 2014 Victorian Population Health Surveys to obtain a sample size of 33,833 Victorian adults, including 387 Indigenous adults...
March 14, 2019: BMC Public Health
Victoria Simms, Julia Downing, Eve Namisango, R Anthony Powell, Faith Mwangi-Powell, Irene J Higginson, Richard Harding
BACKGROUND: Evidence on patient-reported outcomes of newly diagnosed HIV patients is scarce, and largely cross-sectional. This prospective cohort study describes the prevalence of, and changes in, patient-reported outcomes in the three months after HIV diagnosis, in 11 HIV outpatient centres in Kenya and Uganda. METHODS: Adults were recruited within 14 days of result, completing self-report measures four times at monthly intervals. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression (quality of life continuous outcomes) and ordinal logistic regression (symptoms and concerns categorical outcomes) modelled change over time, with repeated observations grouped within individuals adjusted for demographic/clinical characteristics, and multiple imputation for missing data...
March 12, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Stuart Wilson, Caroline Gos
Previous research has shown that interpersonal synchrony is associated with a number of prosocial effects. We investigated the respective roles of behavioural synchrony and perceived task demands on perceptions of cohesion by performing two experiments in which participants viewed pairs of point-light figures engaging in four coordinated behaviours. Behaviours were seen twice, once in perfect in-phase synchrony and once with synchrony manipulated (phase shift: 180° in Experiment 1 and 45°, 90°, 270°, and 315° in Experiment 2)...
March 14, 2019: Perception
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