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Palloma Mendes Conceição, Alison Felipe Alencar Chaves, Marina Valente Navarro, Daniele Gonçalves Castilho, Juliana Cristina P Calado, Ana Elisa Coronel Janu Haniu, Patricia Xander, Wagner L Batista
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a temperature-dependent dimorphic fungus that cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the major systemic mycosis in Latin America. The capacity to evade the innate immune response of the host is due to P. brasiliensis ability to respond and to survive the nitrosative stress caused by phagocytic cells. However, the regulation of signal transduction pathways associated to nitrosative stress response are poorly understood. Ras GTPase play an important role in the various cellular events in many fungi...
February 14, 2019: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Priyanka D Pinky, Jenna Bloemer, Warren D Smith, Timothy Moore, Hao Hong, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Miranda N Reed
Marijuana is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. In addition, use of synthetic cannabinoids is increasing, especially among adolescents and young adults. Although human studies have shown that the use of marijuana during pregnancy leads to adverse behavioral effects, such as deficiencies in attention and executive function in affected offspring, the rate of marijuana use among pregnant women is steadily increasing. Various aspects of human behavior including emotion, learning, and memory are dependent on complex interactions between multiple neurotransmitter systems that are especially vulnerable to alterations during the developmental period...
February 13, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Burin Boonsri, Tanita Pitakarnnop, Kittisak Buddhachat, Phanupong Changtor, Korakot Nganvongpanit
This study demonstrates sexual dimorphism in feline bones based on morphometric analysis of dried flat bones (scapula and os coxa) and long bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, and fibula) of 92 felines (50 male, 42 female). A total of 58 parameters (flat bones: scapula = 4 and os coxa = 7; long bones: humerus = 8, radius = 9, ulna = 10, femur = 9, tibia = 7, and fibula = 4) were measured using a digital vernier caliper. Twenty-three parameters were found to be significantly different between cats of different sexes and skull shapes...
February 15, 2019: Anatomical Science International
Camilla Lindgren Schwartz, Anne Marie Vinggaard, Sofie Christiansen, Thomas Alain Darde, Frederic Chalmel, Terje Svingen
A short anogenital distance (AGD) in males is a marker for incomplete masculinization and a predictor of adverse effects on male reproductive health. For this reason, AGD is used to assess the endocrine disrupting potential of chemicals for risk assessment purposes. The molecular mechanisms underpinning this chemically induced shortening of the AGD, however, remains unclear. Although it is clear that AR-mediated signaling is essential, evidence also suggest the involvement of other signaling pathways. This study presents the first global transcriptional profile of the anogenital tissue in male rat fetuses with chemically induced short AGD, also including comparison to normal male and female control animals...
February 15, 2019: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Saravanakumar Jeevanandam, K M Prathibha
Introduction: A bidirectional relationship between testosterone and obesity is explained by the hypogonadal obesity cycle and evidence from reports stating that weight loss leads to increased testosterone levels. There is an alarming rise in the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents. The objectives of the present study were to measure the 2D:4D ratio of adolescent students and study its association with neck circumference (NC). Materials and Methods: After obtaining ethical clearance, the study was conducted on 168 adolescents pursuing their undergraduate education in a South Indian university...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Maria C M Pedroso, Amanda B de Araújo, Agrício N Crespo, Marcelo H Sampaio, Eulália Sakano
Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum , which is saprophyte of contaminated soil. In the immunocompetent host, the symptoms of histoplasmosis tend to be mild or even non-existent. In immunocompromised patients, the manifestations may be more severe and the disease manifests itself in a disseminated form, with high mortality rates. Isolated mucosal lesions are infrequent and the purpose of this report is to describe an unusual case of nasal septum ulcer as an isolated clinical manifestation of the disease...
2019: IDCases
Juan Carlos Senar, Lluïsa Arroyo, Alba Ortega-Segalerva, José G Carrillo, Xavier Tomás, Tomas Montalvo, Ana Sanz-Aguilar
Many species only show sexual dimorphism at the age of maturity, such that juveniles typically resemble females. Under these circumstances, estimating accurate age-specific demographic parameters is challenging. Here, we propose a multievent model parameterization able to estimate age-dependent survival using capture-recapture data with uncertainty in age and sex assignment of individuals. We illustrate this modeling approach with capture-recapture data from the ring-necked parakeet Psittacula krameri . We analyzed capture, recapture, and resighting data (439 recaptures/resightings) of 156 ring-necked parakeets tagged with neck collars in Barcelona city from 2003 to 2016 to estimate the juvenile and adult survival rate...
January 2019: Ecology and Evolution
A P Lipinska, M L Serrano-Serrano, A Cormier, A F Peters, K Kogame, J M Cock, S M Coelho
BACKGROUND: Sexual life cycles in eukaryotes involve a cyclic alternation between haploid and diploid phases. While most animals possess a diploid life cycle, many plants and algae alternate between multicellular haploid (gametophyte) and diploid (sporophyte) generations. In many algae, gametophytes and sporophytes are independent and free-living and may present dramatic phenotypic differences. The same shared genome can therefore be subject to different, even conflicting, selection pressures during each of the life cycle generations...
February 14, 2019: Genome Biology
Domenico Alessandro Silvestris, Ernesto Picardi, Valeriana Cesarini, Bruno Fosso, Nicolò Mangraviti, Luca Massimi, Maurizio Martini, Graziano Pesole, Franco Locatelli, Angela Gallo
BACKGROUND: Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is an essential post-transcriptional mechanism mediated by ADAR enzymes that have been recently associated with cancer. RESULTS: Here, we characterize the inosinome signature in normal brain and de novo glioblastoma (GBM) using new metrics that re-stratify GBM patients according to their editing profiles and indicate this post-transcriptional event as a possible molecular mechanism for sexual dimorphism in GBM...
February 13, 2019: Genome Biology
Qian Qi, Pin Lv, Xiao-Ming Chen, Hang Chen, Ming-Shun Chen, Pu Yang
The scale insect, Ericerus pela Chavannes, shows a typical sexual dimorphism. Males and females are different not only in morphology, but also in their ability to secrete wax and ecological adaptability. Here we report the morphological and structural characteristics of wax glands on E. pela females and males. The differences in wax glands and wax secretion between females and males reflect their different needs for living habitats and different ecological strategies. Sciophilous male nymphs are with five types of wax glands, and the wax glands on the dorsum secrete a layer of wax filaments plausibly for protection against direct light irradiation...
February 13, 2019: Environmental Entomology
Patricia De Campos, Isabela M Oliveira, Janaina Sena de Souza, Rodrigo Rodrigues Da Conceição, Gisele Giannocco, Maria I Chiamolera, Magnus R Dias-Da Silva, Marco A Romano, Renata Marino Romano
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) that is widely used in the manufacturing of plastics and inner linings of food cans. Previously, it was reported that BPA disturbed the sexual dimorphic nucleus of the hypothalamus and delaying the onset of puberty attributed to an estrogenic action. In addition, BPA during the perinatal period increased LH serum concentrations in male offspring of dams at doses below the reproductive NOAEL (No Observable Adverse Effect Level) based upon World Health Organization guidelines...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Zhen Zhen Zhou, Hong Jie Zhu, Li Ping Lin, Xuan Zhang, Hui Ming Ge, Rui Hua Jiao, Ren Xiang Tan
Polyketide-polyketide hybrids are unique natural products with promising bioactivity, but the hybridization processes remain poorly understood. Herein, we present that the biosynthetic pathways of two immunosuppressants, dalmanol A and acetodalmanol A, result from an unspecific monooxygenase triggered hybridization of two distinct polyketide (naphthalene and chromane) biosynthetic gene clusters. The orchestration of the functional dimorphism of the polyketide synthase (ChrA) ketoreductase (KR) domain (shortened as ChrA KR) with that of the KR partner (ChrB) in the bioassembly line increases the polyketide diversity and allows the fungal generation of plant chromanes ( e...
January 7, 2019: Chemical Science
Munish Reddy, Vandana Reddy, Vijay Wadhwan, Arvind Venkatesh
Background: Identification of an individual from fragmented remains is still a very challenging task for forensic experts in spite of the many studies which have been carried out till date, across the globe. Stature, one of the criteria of personal identification, has a definite and proportional biological relationship with every part of the human body which includes the cephalofacial (CF) region. At instances, where only CF remains are available, it becomes difficult for the forensic scientist to identify the deceased since there is a paucity of studies pertaining to the estimation of stature from CF dimensions...
May 2018: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Divyalakshmi Govindaram, R Bharanidharan, R Ramya, A Rameshkumar, N Priyadharsini, K Rajkumar
Background: Sexual dimorphism in teeth has been an area of research for forensic anthropologists. The function of root in transmitting the forces of occlusion to the alveolar bone varies as the force in males tends to be larger than in females. This shows the significance of the root length as indicators of sexual dimorphism. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the presence of sexual dimorphism in the root lengths of permanent teeth and to evaluate if root length could be instrumental in defining sexual dimorphism among an ethnic Tamil population...
May 2018: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Joon Yoon, Heebal Kim
Objective: Recent studies have implied that gene expression has high tissue-specificity, and therefore it is essential to investigate gene expression in a variety of tissues when performing the transcriptomic analysis. In addition, the gradual increase of lncRNA annotation database has increased the importance and proportion of mapped reads accordingly. Methods: We employed simple statistical models to detect the sexually biased/dimorphic genes and their conjugate lncRNAs in 40 RNA-seq samples across two factors: sex and tissue...
November 28, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Michael Garratt, Danielle Leander, Kaitlyn Pifer, Brian Bower, Jonathan J Herrera, Sharlene M Day, Oliver Fiehn, Susan V Brooks, Richard A Miller
Pharmacological treatments can extend mouse lifespan, but lifespan effects often differ between sexes. 17-α estradiol (17aE2), a less feminizing structural isomer of 17-β estradiol, produces lifespan extension only in male mice, suggesting a sexually dimorphic mechanism of lifespan regulation. We tested whether these anti-aging effects extend to anatomical and functional aging-important in late-life health-and whether gonadally derived hormones control aging responses to 17aE2 in either sex. While 17aE2 started at 4 months of age diminishes body weight in both sexes during adulthood, in late-life 17aE2-treated mice better maintain body weight...
February 10, 2019: Aging Cell
Helen B Foley, Patrick Y Sun, Rocio Ramirez, Brandon K So, Yaamini R Venkataraman, Emily N Nixon, Kelvin J A Davies, Suzanne Edmands
Because stress tolerance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked, the sex with higher acute stress tolerance might be expected to also live longer. On the other hand, the association between stress tolerance and lifespan may be complicated by tradeoffs between acute tolerance and long-term survival. Here we use the copepod Tigriopus californicus to test for sex differences in stress resistance, proteolytic activity and longevity. Unlike many model organisms, this species does not have sex chromosomes...
February 7, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Burcu Gündüz Ergün, Damla Hüccetoğulları, Sibel Öztürk, Eda Çelik, Pınar Çalık
Yeast was the first microorganism used by mankind for biotransformation of feedstock that laid the foundations of industrial biotechnology. Long historical use, vast amount of data, and experience paved the way for Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a first yeast cell factory, and still it is an important expression platform as being the production host for several large volume products. Continuing special needs of each targeted product and different requirements of bioprocess operations have led to identification of different yeast expression systems...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Clara Gobé, Maëva Elzaiat, Nicolas Meunier, Marjolaine André, Eli Sellem, Patrice Congar, Luc Jouneau, Aurélie Allais-Bonnet, Ikrame Naciri, Bruno Passet, Eric Pailhoux, Maëlle Pannetier
Gonad differentiation is a crucial step conditioning the future fertility of individuals and most of the master genes involved in this process have been investigated in detail. However, transcriptomic analyses of developing gonads from different animal models have revealed that hundreds of genes present sexually dimorphic expression patterns. DMXL2 was one of these genes and its function in mammalian gonads was unknown. We therefore investigated the phenotypes of total and gonad-specific Dmxl2 knockout mouse lines...
February 8, 2019: PLoS Genetics
Seong-Gyu Lee, Christine Fogarty Celestino, Jeffrey Stagg, Christoph Kleineidam, Neil J Vickers
Olfactory projection neurons convey information from the insect antennal lobe (AL) to higher brain centers. Previous reports have demonstrated that pheromone-responsive projection neurons with cell bodies in the moth medial cell cluster (mcPNs) predominantly have dendritic arborizations in the sexually dimorphic macroglomerular complex (MGC) and send an axon from the AL to the calyces of the mushroom body (CA) as well as the lateral horn (LH) of the protocerebrum via the medial AL tract. These neurons typically exhibit a narrow odor tuning range related to the restriction of their dendritic arbors within a single glomerulus (uniglomerular)...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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