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soil nutrients

Jipeng Luo, Yuying Liu, Qi Tao, Qiong Hou, Keren Wu, Yuchao Song, Yuankun Liu, Xinyu Guo, Jinxing Li, Muhammad Laeeq Ur Rehman Hashmi, Yongchao Liang, Tingqiang Li
Phytoextraction is an attractive strategy for remediation of soils contaminated by heavy metal (HM), yet the effects of this practice on biochemical processes involved in soil nutrient cycling remain unknown. Here we investigated the impact of successive phytoextraction with a Cd/Zn co-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii (Crassulaceae) on potential nitrification rates (PNRs), abundance and composition of nitrifying communities and functional genes associated with nitrification using archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiling and quantitative real-time PCR...
January 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Sabrina Leonhardt, Björn Hoppe, Elisa Stengel, Lisa Noll, Julia Moll, Claus Bässler, Andreas Dahl, Francois Buscot, Martin Hofrichter, Harald Kellner
Deadwood is an important structural component in forest ecosystems and plays a significant role in global carbon and nutrient cycling. Relatively little is known about the formation and decomposition of CWD by microbial communities in situ and about the factors controlling the associated processes. In this study, we intensively analyzed the molecular fungal community composition and species richness in relation to extracellular enzyme activity and differences in decomposing sapwood and heartwood of 13 temperate tree species (four coniferous and nine deciduous species, log diameter 30-40 cm and 4 m long) in an artificial experiment involving placing the logs on the forest soil for six years...
2019: PloS One
Dongchu Guo, Zhouzhou Fan, Shuyu Lu, Yongjiao Ma, Xiaohong Nie, Fangping Tong, Xiawei Peng
Mining and smelting activities are the major sources of antimony (Sb) contamination. The soil around Xikuangshan (XKS), one of the largest Sb mines in the world, has been contaminated with high concentrations of Sb and other associated metals, and has attracted extensive scholarly attention. Phytoremediation is considered a promising method for removing heavy metals, and the diversity and structure of rhizosphere microorganisms may change during the phytoremediation process. The rhizosphere microbiome is involved in soil energy transfer, nutrient cycling, and resistance and detoxification of metal elements...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Xin-Qiao Du, Feng-Liu Wang, Hong Li, Si Jing, Miao Yu, Jigang Li, Wei-Hua Wu, Joerg Kudla, Yi Wang
Potassium and nitrogen are essential nutrients for plant growth and development. Plants can sense K+/NO3- levels in soils, and accordingly they adjust root-to-shoot K+/NO3- transport to balance the distribution of these ions between roots and shoots. In this study, we show that the transcription factor MYB59 maintains this balance by regulating the transcription of the Arabidopsis transporter NRT1.5/NPF7.3 in response to low K+ (LK) stress. The myb59 mutant showed a yellow-shoot sensitive phenotype when grown on LK medium...
February 13, 2019: Plant Cell
G H Old, P S Naden, M Harman, M J Bowes, C Roberts, P M Scarlett, D J E Nicholls, L K Armstrong, H D Wickham, D S Read
Catchment based solutions are being sought to mitigate water quality pressures and achieve multiple benefits but their success depends on a sound understanding of catchment functioning. Novel approaches to monitoring and data analysis are urgently needed. In this paper we explore the potential of river water fluorescence at the catchment scale in understanding nutrient concentrations, sources and pathways. Data were collected from across the River Thames basin from January 2012 to March 2015. Analysing emission excitation matrices (EEMs) using both PARAFAC and optimal area averaging produced consistent results for humic-like component 1 and tryptophan-like component 4 in the absence of a subset of samples that exhibited an unusual peak; illustrating the importance of inspecting the entire EEM before using peak averaging methods...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Florian Klamer, Florian Vogel, Xuelian Li, Hinrich Bremer, Günter Neumann, Benjamin Neuhäuser, Frank Hochholdinger, Uwe Ludewig
Background and Aims: Root hairs are single-cell extensions of the epidermis that face into the soil and increase the root-soil contact surface. Root hairs enlarge the rhizosphere radially and are very important for taking up water and sparingly soluble nutrients, such as the poorly soil-mobile phosphate. In order to quantify the importance of root hairs for maize, a mutant and the corresponding wild type were compared. Methods: The rth2 maize mutant with very short root hairs was assayed for growth and phosphorus (P) acquisition in a slightly alkaline soil with low P and limited water supply in the absence of mycorrhization and with ample P supply...
February 12, 2019: Annals of Botany
Tobias Roth, Lukas Kohli, Christoph Bühler, Beat Rihm, Reto Giulio Meuli, Reto Meier, Valentin Amrhein
Nitrogen (N) deposition is a major threat to biodiversity in many habitats. The recent introduction of cleaner technologies in Switzerland has led to a reduction in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, with a consequent decrease in N deposition. We examined different drivers of plant community change, that is, N deposition, climate warming, and land-use change, in Swiss mountain hay meadows, using data from the Swiss biodiversity monitoring program. We compared indicator values of species that disappeared from or colonized a site (species turnover) with the indicator values of randomly chosen species from the same site...
2019: PeerJ
Katia Plouznikoff, Maria J Asins, Hervé Dupré de Boulois, Emilio A Carbonell, Stéphane Declerck
Background and Aims: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in plant nutrition and protection against pests and diseases, as well as in soil structuration, nutrient cycling and, generally speaking, in sustainable agriculture, particularly under drought, salinity and low input or organic agriculture. However, little is known about the genetics of the AMF-plant association in tomato. The aim of this study was the genetic analysis of root AMF colonization in tomato via the detection of the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved...
February 9, 2019: Annals of Botany
Jonathan P Lynch
Nutrient efficient crops are a solution to the two grand challenges of modern agriculture: improving food security while reducing environmental impacts. The primary challenges are (1) N and P efficiency, (2) K, Ca, and Mg efficiency for acid soils, and (3) Fe and Zn efficiency for alkaline soils. Root phenotypes are promising breeding targets for each of these. The Topsoil Foraging ideotype is beneficial for P capture and should also be useful for capture of K, Ca, and Mg in acid soils. The Steep, Cheap, and Deep ideotype for subsoil foraging is beneficial for N and water capture...
February 11, 2019: New Phytologist
Jing Zheng, Junliang Fan, Fucang Zhang, Shicheng Yan, You Wu, Junsheng Lu, Jinjin Guo, Minghui Cheng, Yuefeng Pei
Quantitative knowledge of the spatial variability of soil infiltration processes caused by canopy rainfall redistribution has significant hydro-chemical consequences owing to their influence on nutrients leaching and groundwater recharge in agricultural ecosystems. The heterogeneity of throughfall and stemflow under the maize canopy was quantified in this study, and its subsequent effect on soil water distribution at the row scale was further examined. Throughfall at 15 locations within and between maize rows as well as stemflow was observed over three growing seasons of 2015, 2016 and 2017 on the Loess Plateau of China...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Zichun Guo, Jiabao Zhang, Jun Fan, Xueyun Yang, Yanli Yi, Xiaori Han, Daozhong Wang, Ping Zhu, Xinhua Peng
Manure application is widely recognized as a method of improving soil structure and soil fertility due to additional organic matter and nutrient inputs. However, the salinity of animal manure may have a detrimental effect on soil aggregation. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of long-term animal manure application on soil aggregation, binding agents (soil organic carbon, SOC and glomalin-related soil protein, GRSP), and dispersing agents (e.g., Na+ ) and their relationships based on nine long-term fertilization experiments (12 to 39 yr) across China...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Xun Wen Chen, James Tsz Fung Wong, Zhan Ting Chen, Thomas Wui Lung Tang, Hao Wen Guo, Anna Oi Wah Leung, Charles Wang Wai Ng, Ming Hung Wong
Landfills commonly occupy large areas of land that may be ecologically important. Ecological restoration of landfill cover is a necessary approach to rebuild sustainable habitats. However, unfavourable soil conditions and invasion by exotic plants in certain regions hinder the restoration. In this study, the effects of biochar as a soil amendment on the restoration of a landfill cover were investigated under field condition. Topsoils of a landfill cover in the subtropical region (Shenzhen, China) were mixed with 0, 5 and 10% (v/v) of biochar...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kaiyun Tao, Xinying Zhang, Xueping Chen, Xiaoyan Liu, Xiaoxin Hu, Xiaoyu Yuan
Both the crude oil removal efficiency of the Eichhornia crassipes dried straw-immobilized bacterial consortium and shifts in soil bacterial community in response to the bioaugmentation strategy were unmasked in this study. After 30 days of bioremediation, total petroleum hydrocarbon in soil was determined and immobilized consortium showed a removal percentage (51.7%) better than either Eichhornia crassipes dried powder (37.0%) or bacteria solution (36.0%) alone. Bacterial community and soil properties analyses demonstrated that the relative abundances of Cytophagales and Rhizobiales increased with increasing total organic carbon and total nitrogen contents because of the addition of Eichhornia crassipes dried powder...
January 25, 2019: Chemosphere
Daniel Kyalo Willy, Milu Muyanga, Thomas Jayne
Boserup's pioneering theory holds that rising population density can be accompanied by sustainable agricultural intensification. But can this positive relationship be sustained indefinitely, or are there conditions under which rising population density can lead to declining agricultural productivity? This study utilizes survey data on farm households in Kenya and soil samples on their main maize plots to assess whether Boserupian agricultural intensification is sustainable at high population densities. The study employs econometric estimation methods to assess the effect of land management practices and population density on soil quality and then determines the effect of soil quality on crop productivity...
February 2019: Land Use Policy
Selina Türtscher, Michael Grabner, Torsten W Berger
Our goal was to reconstruct soil recovery from Acid Rain based upon removal of stemflow at beech ( Fagus sylvatica ) stands of known historic and recent soil status. Fourteen beech stands in the Vienna Woods were selected in 1984 and again in 2012 to study changes in soil and foliar chemistry over time. A part of those stands had been strip cut, and to assess reversibility of soil acidification, we analyzed soils around beech stumps from different years of felling, representing the years when acidic stemflow ceased to affect the soil...
2019: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Rui Wang, Ju Min, Herbert J Kronzucker, Yilin Li, Weiming Shi
Vegetable production systems involve the use of high rates of fertilizer application, leading to significant losses of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the environment, resulting in water body eutrophication through surface runoff and leaching. We here quantify, at the national level, total N and P runoff losses and the key factors controlling runoff in open-field vegetable systems in China, by summarizing data from 151 publications pertaining to 13 Chinese provinces using literature dating back to 1990. Rank analysis was employed to clarify the impact of N and P runoff losses in vegetable systems, and different strategies for controlling N and P entering into water bodies are being compared...
January 30, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Ada Pastor, Anna Freixa, Louis J Skovsholt, Naicheng Wu, Anna M Romaní, Tenna Riis
In the Arctic, climate changes contribute to enhanced mobilization of organic matter in streams. Microbial extracellular enzymes are important mediators of stream organic matter processing, but limited information is available on enzyme processes in this remote area. Here, we studied the variability of microbial extracellular enzyme activity in high-Arctic fluvial biofilms. We evaluated 12 stream reaches in Northeast Greenland draining areas exhibiting different geomorphological features with contrasting contents of soil organic matter to cover a wide range of environmental conditions...
February 10, 2019: Microbial Ecology
Elisa Di Carlo, Amiel Boullemant, Ronan Courtney
Bauxite residue, the by-product of the alumina industry, is mainly stored in land-based bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs). Environmental concern has been raised due to the large volumes in stockpile, the high alkalinity of the material, as well as the presence of elevated concentrations of trace elements. If not adequately managed, BRDAs can act as a source of pollution. In order to minimize the environmental risk, revegetation is implemented to stabilize the residue against water and wind erosion. Currently, two main approaches are used: the use of amendments or the installation of a capping layer...
January 31, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Ronelle Roth, Stefan Hillmer, Charlotta Funaya, Marco Chiapello, Karin Schumacher, Libera Lo Presti, Regine Kahmann, Uta Paszkowski
During establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses, fungal hyphae invade root cells producing transient tree-like structures, the arbuscules, where exchange of photosynthates for soil minerals occurs. Arbuscule formation and collapse lead to rapid production and degradation of plant and fungal membranes, their spatiotemporal dynamics directly influencing nutrient exchange. We determined the ultra-structural details of both membrane surfaces and the interstitial apoplastic matrix by transmission electron microscopy tomography during growth and senescence of Rhizophagus irregularis arbuscules in rice...
February 2019: Nature Plants
Gongwen Luo, Tingting Wang, Kaisong Li, Ling Li, Junwei Zhang, Shiwei Guo, Ning Ling, Qirong Shen
Climate change is predicted to alter precipitation and drought patterns, which has become a global concern as evidence accumulates that it will affect ecosystem services. Disentangling the ability of soil multiple-functions to withstand this stress (multifunctionality resistance) is a crucial topic for assessing the stability and adaptability of agroecosystems. Presently, we explored the effects of nutrient-addition on multifunctionality resistance to drying-wetting cycles, and evaluated the importance of microbial functional capacity (characterized by the abundances of genes involved in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles) for this resistance...
February 8, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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