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"Circadian Rhythm"

Annachiara Marra, Tracy J McGrane, Christopher Patrick Henson, Pratik P Pandharipande
Melatonin is involved in regulation of a variety of physiologic functions, including circadian rhythm, reproduction, mood, and immune function. Exogenous melatonin has demonstrated many clinical effects. Numerous clinical studies have documented improved sleep quality following administration of exogenous melatonin. Recent studies also demonstrate the analgesic, anxiolytic, antiinflammatory, and antioxidative effects of melatonin. This article reviews the principal properties of melatonin and how these could find clinical applications in care of the critically ill patients...
April 2019: Critical Care Clinics
Yue Leng, Erik S Musiek, Kun Hu, Francesco P Cappuccio, Kristine Yaffe
Dysfunction in 24-h circadian rhythms is a common occurrence in ageing adults; however, circadian rhythm disruptions are more severe in people with age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, and Parkinson's disease. Manifestations of circadian rhythm disruptions differ according to the type and severity of neurodegenerative disease and, for some patients, occur before the onset of typical clinical symptoms of neurodegeneration. Evidence from preliminary studies suggest that circadian rhythm disruptions, in addition to being a symptom of neurodegeneration, might also be a potential risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease and related dementias, and Parkinson's disease, although large, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this relationship...
March 2019: Lancet Neurology
Shawn D Youngstedt, Jeffrey A Elliott, Daniel F Kripke
KEY POINTS: Exercise elicits circadian phase-shifting effects, but additional information is needed. The phase-response curve describing the magnitude and direction of circadian rhythm phase shifts depending on the time of the zeigeber (time cue) stimulus is the most fundamental chronobiological tool for alleviating circadian misalignment and related morbidity. 51 older and 48 young adults followed a circadian rhythms measurement protocol for up to 5.5 days, and performed 1 h of moderate treadmill exercise for 3 consecutive days at one of 8 times of day/night...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Fabrizio Vallelonga, Cristina Di Stefano, Aristide Merola, Alberto Romagnolo, Gabriele Sobrero, Valeria Milazzo, Alessio Burrello, Jacopo Burrello, Maurizio Zibetti, Franco Veglio, Simona Maule
INTRODUCTION: We sought to analyze the blood pressure (BP) circadian rhythm in Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and pure autonomic failure (PAF) and to evaluate the effect of vasoactive and dopaminergic medications on BP fluctuations during activities of daily living. METHODS: We analyzed data from patients with PD (n = 72), MSA (n = 18), and PAF (n = 17) evaluated with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) at our Center between 1996 and 2015...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Neurology
Shimin Sun, Zuojun Liu, Yukun Feng, Lei Shi, Xinyue Cao, Yanlin Cai, Baohua Liu
Circadian clock relies on a transcription and translation feedback loop (TTFL). Two transcription factors, i.e. Bmal1 and Clock, activate the transcription of Period (Per) and Cryptochrome (Cry), which inhibit their own transcription when accumulated to a critical concentration. NAD+ -dependent deacylase Sirt1 deacetylates Bmal1 and Per2 to regulate circadian rhythms. Sirt6 interacts with Bmal1 to regulate clock-controlled gene (CCG) expression by local chromatin remodeling. Whether Sirt6 directly modify clock components is elusive...
February 16, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Eiko N Minakawa, Keiji Wada, Yoshitaka Nagai
Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in patients with various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it can manifest in the early stages of the disease. Impaired sleep in patients with AD has been attributed to AD pathology that affects brain regions regulating the sleep⁻wake or circadian rhythm. However, recent epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated an association between impaired sleep and an increased risk of AD. These studies have led to the idea of a bidirectional relationship between AD and impaired sleep; in addition to the conventional concept that impaired sleep is a consequence of AD pathology, various evidence strongly suggests that impaired sleep is a risk factor for the initiation and progression of AD...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sunyoung Park, Eun-Soo Lee, Nok-Hyun Park, Kyeonghwan Hwang, Eun-Gyung Cho
The human skin is the outermost physical barrier and has its own circadian machinery that works either cooperatively with the central clock, or autonomously. Circadian rhythms have been observed in many functions related to epidermal homeostasis including hydration and inflammation, and this functional oscillation is disturbed by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which is a strong environmental cue. Among the genes estimated to show circadian expression in the skin, metalloproteinase inhibitor 3 ( TIMP3 ), has a rhythmic expression in synchronized human keratinocytes similar to that of the core clock gene PER1 and an epidermal circadian regulatory gene, aquaporin 3 ( AQP3 ) but was antiphase to the core clock gene BMAL1 ...
February 16, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tursun Alkam, Toshitaka Nabeshima
Nicotine, one of the more than 4700 ingredients in tobacco smoke, is a neurotoxin and once used as pesticides in agriculture. Although its use in agriculture is prohibited in many countries, nicotine intoxication is still a problem among the workers in tobacco farms, and young children as well as adults due to the accidental or suicidal ingestions of nicotine products. Understanding the mechanism of nicotine intoxication is important not only for the prevention and treatment but also for the appropriate regulatory approaches...
February 16, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Sirorat Thongrod, Chaitip Wanichanon, Prasert Sobhon
Neuropeptide F in invertebrates is a homolog of neuropeptide Y in mammals and it is a member of FMRFamide-related peptides. In arthropods, such as insects, there are two types of neuropeptide F comprising long neuropeptide F (NPF) and short neuropeptide F (sNPF). Both NPFs are known to play a crucial role in the regulations of foraging, feeding-related behaviors, circadian rhythm, stress responses, aggression and reproduction in invertebrates. We have earlier found that in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, there are three isoforms of NPF and four isoforms of sNPF and that NPFs are expressed in the eyestalks and brain...
February 19, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Brenden Chen, Minghui Wang, Lin Gan, Bin Zhang, Robert J Desnick, Makiko Yasuda
Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP), an autosomal dominant hepatic disorder, results from hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) mutations that decrease the encoded enzymatic activity, thereby predisposing patients to life-threatening acute neurovisceral attacks. The ~1% penetrance of AIP suggests that other genetic factors modulate the onset and severity of the acute attacks. Here, we characterized the hepatic transcriptomic response to phenobarbital (PB) administration in AIP mice, which mimics the biochemical attacks of AIP...
January 6, 2019: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
O Rudenko, C Springer, L J Skov, A N Madsen, L Hasholt, A Nørremølle, B Holst
Huntington's disease (HD) is a heritable neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by metabolic disturbances, along with cognitive and psychiatric impairments. Targeting metabolic HD dysfunction through maintenance of body weight and fat mass and restoration of peripheral energy metabolism can improve the progression of neurological symptoms. In this respect, we focused on the therapeutic potential of the orexigenic peptide hormone ghrelin, which plays an important role in promoting a positive energy balance...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Iranzo A, Stefani A, Högl B, Santamaria J
OBJECTIVE: As Franz Kafka, one of the most important writers of the 20th century, suffered from severe chronic insomnia disorder and inadequate sleep hygiene that impaired his quality of life, we speculated that sleep disorders would be found in his narrative works. METHODS: We read Kafka's complete literary works looking for references to sleep and sleep disorders, excluding insomnia. RESULTS: In Kafka's works, sleeping well and for a long time was used as an allegory of having a pleasant life...
December 31, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Mamoru Nagano, Keisuke Ikegami, Yoichi Minami, Yuji Kanazawa, Satoshi Koinuma, Mitsugu Sujino, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the center of the mammalian circadian system. Environmental photic signals shifts the phase of the circadian rhythm in the SCN except during the dead zone, when the photic signal is gated somewhere on the way from the retina to the neurons in the SCN. Here we examined the phase of the dead zone after an abrupt delay of the LD cycles for several days by observing the mc-Fos induction in the SCN by light pulses. After an abrupt shift of the LD cycles, the dead zone showed a slow phase shift, about two hours per day, which was well corresponded with the slow phase shift of the rest-activity cycles...
February 13, 2019: Brain Research
Christine Blume, Monika Angerer, Marion Raml, Renata Del Giudice, Nayantara Santhi, Gerald Pichler, Alexander B Kunz, Monika Scarpatetti, Eugen Trinka, Manuel Schabus
INTRODUCTION: Healthy circadian rhythmicity has been suggested to relate to a better state of brain-injured patients and to support the emergence of consciousness in patient groups characterised by a relative instability thereof such as patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). METHODS: Going beyond earlier studies, we have adopted a systems-level perspective and, using multilevel modelling, assessed the joint predictive value of three indexes of circadian rhythm integrity derived from skin temperature variations, melatoninsulfate (aMT6s) secretion, and physical activity (wrist actigraphy) patterns for DOC patients' (13 unresponsive wakefulness syndrome [UWS]; 7 minimally conscious (exit) state [E/MCS]) behaviourally assessed state (Coma Recovery Scale-Revised [CRS-R] score)...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Robert Ritson, Dustin H Ranglack, Nate Bickford
A wide variety of environmental stimuli can influence the behavior of animals including temperature, weather, light, lunar and seasonal cycles, seismic activity, as well as other perturbations to their circadian rhythm. Solar eclipses offer a unique opportunity to evaluate the relative influence of unexpected darkness on behavior of animals due to their sudden interference with local light levels and meteorology. Though occasionally bizarre, modern studies have lent support to the idea that at least some individuals of certain species display altered behavior during these events...
February 14, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Eleonore L Huang, Ingo G Steffen, Mathias Lukas, Kai Huang, Joerg R Aschenbach, Janet F Eary, Winfried Brenner, Nicola Beindorff
AIM: The aim of this study was to establish normal values for parotid gland (PG) and submandibular-sublingual salivary gland complex (SSC) uptake of 99m technetium pertechnetate (99m TcO4 ) as a function of age, sex and circadian rhythm in mice. METHODS: In 12 female (F) and 12 male (M) C57BL/6N mice, nine consecutive SPECT images of 10 min each were acquired as dynamic acquisitions beginning 5 min after intravenous injection of 80 MBq 99m TcO4 . Each mouse was imaged in follow-up studies at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age...
February 2019: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
Zsófia Budai, László Balogh, Zsolt Sarang
Dietary food, depending on timing, amount and composition can influence gene expression in various tissues. Here, we investigated the effect of high-fat meal diets of different compositions on the gene expression pattern of human skeletal muscle. Gene expression data of skeletal muscle samples from human volunteers prior and 4 h after the consumption of high lipid-containing meal consisting of either saturated-, monounsaturated- or polyunsaturated fatty acids were downloaded from the public repository. List of 843 differently expressed genes (DEGs) was generated...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Xiao Wan, Long-Hai Zou, Bao-Qiang Zheng, Yan Wang
Dendrobium catenatum , an epiphytic and lithophytic species, suffers frequently from perennial shortage of water in the wild. The molecular mechanisms of this orchid's tolerance to abiotic stress, especially drought, remain largely unknown. It is well-known that CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPKs) proteins play important roles in plant developmental processes, signal transduction, and responses to abiotic stress. To study the CIPKs' functions for D. catenatum , we first identified 24 CIPK genes from it. We divided them into three subgroups, with varying intron numbers and protein motifs, based on phylogeny analysis...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Senem Ayça, Halil Ural Aksoy, İsmail Taştan, Muzaffer Polat
Levels of melatonin have been reported before in children with epilepsy, but such has not been reported to date in those with continuous spikes and waves during sleep. The aim of the present study was to assess serum melatonin levels and melatonin circadian rhythm in patients with continuous spikes and waves during sleep and epilepsy. Serum melatonin was measured in 39 children stratified into 3 groups. Group 1 included 15 patients with continuous spikes and waves during sleep, group 2 included 12 epilepsy patients, and group 3 included 12 controls, respectively...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Child Neurology
Vedbar Singh Khadka, Kimberley Vaughn, Juan Xie, Padmapriya Swaminathan, Qin Ma, Grant R Cramer, Anne Y Fennell
BACKGROUND: Drought is an important constraint on grapevine sustainability. Vitis riparia, widely used in rootstock and scion breeding, has been studied in isolated leaf drying response studies; however, it is essential to identify key root and shoot water deficit signaling traits in intact plants. This information will aid improved scion and rootstock selection and management practices in grapevine. RNAseq data were generated from V. riparia roots and shoots under water deficit and well-watered conditions to determine root signaling and shoot responses to water deficit...
February 13, 2019: BMC Plant Biology
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