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Anxiety and Stress

Julina A Rattel, Melanie Wegerer, Stephan F Miedl, Jens Blechert, Lisa M Grünberger, Michelle G Craske, Frank H Wilhelm
Higher prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women than men may be explained by sex differences in fear learning processes. Initial evidence points to elevated unconditioned and conditioned fear responding as well as to elevated state anxiety in women as potential peritraumatic mechanisms. Using the "conditioned-intrusion-paradigm", which combines differential fear conditioning with the trauma-film paradigm, neutral sounds were presented as predictors of the occurrence (CS+) or non-occurrence (CS-) of highly aversive films...
February 2, 2019: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Roohi Mirza, Bhupesh Sharma
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with two major behavioral symptoms i.e. repetitive behavior and social-communication impairment. The unknown etiology of ASD is responsible for the difficulty in identifying the possible therapeutic modulators for ASD. Valproic acid (VPA) is an anticonvulsant drug in both human and rodents with teratogenic effects during pregnancy. Therefore, prenatal exposure of VPA induced autism spectrum disorder like phenotypes in both human and rodents. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) is widely localized in the brain...
February 12, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Keren Cohen, Liat Leibovich, Rayna Markin, Sigal Zilcha-Mano
AIM: Despite research suggesting increased anxiety and depressive symptoms after a perinatal loss and during future pregnancies, little knowledge exists to guide clinicians treating pregnant women after perinatal loss. This case study explores processes that facilitated therapeutic change for a pregnant patient with major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder after perinatal losses. METHOD: The study integrated quantitative and narrative analyses in a single case derived from the pilot phase of a randomized controlled trial on supportive-expressive therapy for MDD...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Satoshi Okamura, Hirotaka Nagai, Chisato Numa, Midori Nagai, Ryota Shinohara, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki
AIMS: Animal studies using various stress models have shown that excessive environmental stress induces depression? and anxiety?like behaviors through inflammatory responses in the brain and periphery. Although the leptomeningeal cells have multiple functions related to inflammatory responses in the brain, whether environmental stress influences the leptomeninges remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to examine phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the leptomeninges...
February 14, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology reports
Jingjin Shao, Hang Yang, Qinghua Zhang, Weiping Du, Huijie Lei
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to validate the role of the stress and coping paradigm in the context of psychological adjustment to chronic illnesses among older adults by using the structural equation modeling technique, as well as investigating the differences in structural weights between older adults with arthritis and older adults with hypertension. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 325 older adults with chronic illnesses (149 hypertension, 176 arthritis), aged 60-88 years, who completed questions on perceived social support, psychological resources, threat appraisal, self-efficacy, coping strategy, depressive symptoms, and anxiety...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Sanjay Kalra, Gagan Priya, Emmy Grewal, Than Than Aye, B K Waraich, Tint SweLatt, Touch Khun, Menh Phanvarine, Sun Sutta, Uditha Kaush, Manilka, Sundeep Ruder, Bharti Kalra
Buddhist philosophy is a way of life that transcends the borders of religion and focuses on the alleviation of suffering. The core teaching of Buddha was the Four Noble Truths: there is suffering, suffering is caused by clinging and ignorance, there is a way out of suffering and that way is the Noble Eightfold Path. The medical analogy in diabetes care would include identification of diabetes, understanding its etiopathogenesis, and how prognosis can be improved with appropriate care and management of this chronic disorder...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Peter L Fisher, Angela Byrne, Louise Fairburn, Helen Ullmer, Gareth Abbey, Peter Salmon
Background: Adult cancer survivors often experience substantial psychological morbidity following the completion of acute cancer treatment. Unfortunately, current psychological interventions are of limited efficacy. This study explored if metacognitive therapy (MCT); a brief transdiagnostic psychological intervention was potentially efficacious and could be delivered effectively to adult cancer survivors with psychological morbidity. Methods: An open trial with 3- and 6-month follow-up evaluated the treatment effects of MCT in 27 consecutively referred individuals to a clinical psychology health service specializing in psycho-oncology...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
T R Kanmani, Birudu Raju
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) will be the third largest killer by the year 2020 in the world. It creates the great amount of morbidity, disability, mortality, and reduces the psychosocial well-being of the patients and their caregivers. Hence, the current paper aimed to explore the psychosocial distress and caregivers' concerns in emergency and trauma care (ETC) setting. Methodology: This study adopted qualitative research design. All caregivers of TBI survivors were considered as a universe of the study...
January 2019: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
June Cho, Xiaogang Su, Diane Holditch-Davis
OBJECTIVES: To examine the concurrent use of self-report questionnaires and hormonal biomarkers, specifically levels of testosterone and cortisol, along with demographic variables and corrected age (CA) in the assessment of mental health and healthy behaviors among mothers of very-low-birthweight (VLBW, BW < 1,500 g) infants at five time points over 2 years post birth. METHOD: Data on 40 mothers from a neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary medical center in the southeast United States were collected from the medical record, standard questionnaires for the mother (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, anxiety, mental health status, parenting stress, and healthy lifestyle behaviors), and biochemical measurement of maternal testosterone and cortisol using enzyme immunoassay at birth, 40 weeks' postmenstrual age, and 6, 12, and 24 months CA...
February 14, 2019: Biological Research for Nursing
David A Kalmbach, James L Abelson, J Todd Arnedt, Zhuo Zhao, Jessica R Schubert, Srijan Sen
STUDY OBJECTIVES: While anxiety rates are alarmingly high in short sleeping insomniacs, the relationship between insomnia and anxiety symptoms has not been extensively studied, especially in comparison to the relationship between insomnia and depressive symptoms. Using residency training as a naturalistic stress exposure, we prospectively assessed the role of sleep disturbance and duration on anxiety-risk in response to stress. METHODS: Web-based survey data from 1336 first-year training physicians (interns) prior to and then quarterly across medical internship...
December 14, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Lihua Liu, Denise Fillipucci, Satish M Mahajan
Educational preparation for nurse preceptors helps reduce anxiety and stress in precepting. A quality improvement project was initiated in a large U.S. West Coast federal healthcare system to evaluate an existing training program for preceptors. A new 2-day preceptor workshop was subsequently created to address identified gaps. Results demonstrated statistically significant gains in preceptors' essential knowledge and skills required in precepting, and room for improvement in faculty teaching techniques and course materials...
February 11, 2019: Journal for Nurses in Professional Development
Katharina Kuba, Peter Esser, Anja Mehnert, Andreas Hinz, Christoffer Johansen, Florian Lordick, Heide Götze
OBJECTIVE: An increasing number of hematologic cancer patients outlive 10 years past diagnosis. Nevertheless, few studies investigated psychological strain in this patient group beyond 5 years after diagnosis. We conducted a registry-based investigation of risk for depression and anxiety among long-term hematologic cancer survivors up to 26 years after diagnosis compared to the general population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional postal survey, cancer survivors were recruited through 2 regional cancer registries in Germany...
March 2019: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Rachel Aaron, Melanie Noel, Joanne Dudeney, Anna Wilson, Amy Holley, Tonya Palermo
Pain frequently co-occurs with elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS); women are at elevated risk for their co-occurrence. PTSS and pain are associated with poor sleep quality; yet, little research has examined how sleep impacts their co-occurrence. The current study examines the indirect role of sleep on the relationship between PTSS and pain. A community sample of 182 women completed psychometrically-sound questionnaires assessing PTSS, sleep quality, pain characteristics, depression and anxiety symptoms, and anxiety sensitivity...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Erin C Smith, Frederick M Burkle
IntroductionIn the years following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City (New York USA), otherwise known as 9/11, first responders began experiencing a range of health and psychosocial impacts. Publications documenting these largely focus on firefighters. This research explores paramedic and emergency medical technician (EMT) reflections on the long-term impact of responding to the 9/11 terrorist attacks. METHODS: Qualitative methods were used to conduct interviews with 54 paramedics and EMTs on the 15-year anniversary of 9/11...
February 2019: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Rachel D Penrod, Jaswinder Kumar, Laura N Smith, Daniel McCalley, Todd Nentwig, Brandon Hughes, Gabriella Barry, Kelsey Glover, Makoto Taniguchi, Christopher W Cowan
The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc, also known as Arg3.1) regulates glutamatergic synapse plasticity and has been linked to neuropsychiatric illness; however, its role in behaviors associated with mood and anxiety disorders remains unclear. We find that stress upregulates Arc expression in the adult mouse nucleus accumbens (NAc) - a brain region implicated in mood and anxiety behaviors. Global Arc knockout mice have altered AMPAR-subunit surface levels in the adult NAc, and the Arc-deficient mice show reductions in anxiety-like behavior, deficits in social novelty preference, and anti-depressive-like behavior...
February 13, 2019: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Alexandra Ghiţă, Lidia Teixidor, Miquel Monras, Lluisa Ortega, Silvia Mondon, Antoni Gual, Sofia Miranda Paredes, Laura Villares Urgell, Bruno Porras-García, Marta Ferrer-García, José Gutiérrez-Maldonado
Background: Many studies have indicated that alcohol craving is a core mechanism in the acquisition, maintenance, and precipitation of relapse in alcohol use disorder (AUD). A common treatment approach in AUD is cue exposure therapy (CET). New technologies like virtual reality (VR) have the potential to enhance the effectiveness of CET by creating realistic scenarios in naturalistic environments. In this study, we aimed to determine relevant triggers of alcohol craving in patients with AUD. Methods: We enrolled 75 outpatients diagnosed with AUD according to the DSM-5 criteria Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and a self-administered questionnaire to assess alcohol craving...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Ty Lees, Jaymen L Elliott, Simon Gunning, Phillip J Newton, Tapan Rai, Sara Lal
Law enforcement is inherently stressful, and police officers are particularly vulnerable to mental and physical disorders. As such, researchers are currently assessing intervention strategies that may combat or manage these psychological, physical and mental issues. To review most recent information regarding anxiety, PTSD, and sleepiness and fatigue and identify the interventions and treatments proposed to overcome work related stressors and associated mental illnesses inflicting law enforcement officers. The EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were canvassed for articles investigating anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleepiness, and fatigue...
February 13, 2019: Industrial Health
Melvin R White, Michael J Graziano, Thomas P Sanderson
Pexacerfont is a corticotropin-releasing factor subtype 1 receptor antagonist that was developed for the treatment of anxiety- and stress-related disorders. This report describes the results of repeat-dose oral toxicity studies in rats (3 and 6 months) and dogs (3 months and 1 year). Pexacerfont was well tolerated in all of these studies at exposures equal to or greater than areas under the curve in humans (clinical dose of 100 mg). Microscopic changes in the liver (hepatocellular hypertrophy), thyroid glands (hypertrophy/hyperplasia and adenomas of follicular cells), and pituitary (hypertrophy/hyperplasia and vacuolation of thyrotrophs) were only observed in rats and were considered adaptive changes in response to hepatic enzyme induction and subsequent alterations in serum thyroid hormone levels...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Toxicology
Tania L King, Allison Milner, Zoe Aitken, Amalia Karahalios, Eric Emerson, Anne M Kavanagh
Adolescence is a period of elevated stress for many young people, and it is possible that the challenges of adolescence are different for vulnerable groups. We aimed to document the depressive and anxiety symptoms, emotional-behavioural difficulties and suicidal/self-harming behaviours among adolescents with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) or a disability, compared to those with neither disability nor BIF. Data were drawn from the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children...
February 13, 2019: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Kelly E Moore, Lindsay M S Oberleitner, Howard V Zonana, Alec W Buchanan, Brian P Pittman, Terril L Verplaetse, Gustavo A Angarita, Walter Roberts, Sherry A McKee
OBJECTIVE: Current knowledge regarding the intersection of psychiatric disorders and crime in the United States is limited to psychiatric, forensic, and youth samples. This study presents nationally representative data on the relationship of DSM-5 psychiatric disorders, comorbid substance and mental health disorders, and multimorbidity (number of disorders) with criminal behavior and justice involvement among non-institutionalized US adults. METHODS: Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave III (NESARC-III; 2012-2013; N = 36,309)...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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