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Abnormal placentation

Adrienne Bingham, Fusun Gundogan, Katherine Rand, Abbot R Laptook
OBJECTIVE: To determine if pre-specified placental abnormalities among newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) differ compared to newborns admitted to a NICU without encephalopathy. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study of newborns with HIE (2006-2014) and controls matched for birth year, gestational age, weight, and gender. One pathologist reviewed archived placental sections using pre-specified criteria. RESULTS: Sixty-seven newborns had HIE, 46 had available placentas and were matched with 92 controls...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Marie-Anne Bouldouyre, Hélène Dauphin, Nathalie Cherradou, Hélène Gros
OBJECTIVE: In the obstetric medicine movement and in response to requests for appointments in internal medicine by obstetricians and midwives, we created an internal medicine consultation within the maternity ward of our General Hospital, and provide feedback after 1 year. METHODS: This retrospective descriptive study took place at the Robert Ballanger Intercommunal Hospital Center in Aulnay-sous-Bois in Seine-Saint-Denis (France) between 3rd March 2016 and 9th March 2017, the first year of the internal medicine consultation, one afternoon every 15 days, in the maternity level 2b...
September 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Leena Kadam, Brian Kilburn, Dora Baczyk, Hamid Reza Kohan-Ghadr, John Kingdom, Sascha Drewlo
Increased inflammation and abnormal placentation are common features of a wide spectrum of pregnancy-related disorders such as intra uterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and preterm birth. The inflammatory response of the human placenta has been mostly investigated in relation to cytokine release, but the direct molecular consequences on trophoblast differentiation have not been investigated. This study measured the general effects of LPS on both extravillous and villous trophoblast physiology, and the involvement of the transcription factors PPARγ and NF-κB, specifically using 1st trimester explants and HTR-8/ SVneo cell line models...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Diana K Sung, Rebecca N Baergen
INTRODUCTION: Chorangiosis is a proliferation of capillaries in terminal chorionic villi and is considered to be a marker for hypoxia and poor clinical outcome. Not all cases with hypervascular villi meet the generally accepted diagnostic criteria as reported by Altshuler. Our aim was to evaluate cases with villous hypervascularity that do not meet the diagnosis of chorangiosis, in which increased vascularity was present in a significant portion of the villous tissue but was not a diffuse process, which we call focal chorangiosis, to ascertain whether there were clinical or pathologic associations...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Roongrit Klinjampa, Chantacha Sitticharoon, Xaynaly Souvannavong-Vilivong, Chanakarn Sripong, Issarawan Keadkraichaiwat, Malika Churintaraphan, Saimai Chatree, Tripop Lertbunnaphong
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been reported as a vasoconstrictive substance which might be associated with preeclampsia. The novel findings of this study were that Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R expressions were significantly lower in the PE than the NP group. Moreover, the NPY receptor expression ratio between the PE/NP groups was lowest for Y2R (0.27) compared to Y1R (0.42) and Y5R (0.40) suggestive of a reduction of this receptor in the preeclampsia group. Our results suggested that decreased Y2R mRNA in the PE group might be associated with abnormalities of placental angiogenesis which probably contributes to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia...
February 13, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
M R Babaei, M Oveysi Kian, Z Naderi, S Khodaverdi, Z Raoofi, F Javanmanesh, I Mohseni, S Nasiripour, M Farasatinasab
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the uterine artery embolisation (UAE) in combination with methotrexate (MTX) for conservative management of placental adhesive disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with placental adhesive disorders (including accreta, increta, and percreta lesions) that were treated with UAE in combination with MTX were identified and were followed prospectively for outcomes including uterine preservation and complications. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were identified who had the diagnosis of abnormal placenta implantation during this study...
February 9, 2019: Clinical Radiology
Tomohiro Tobita, Daiji Kiyozumi, Masanaga Muto, Taichi Noda, Masahito Ikawa
Preeclampsia is a systemic disease caused by abnormal placentation that affects both mother and fetus. It was reported that Laeverin (LVRN, also known as Aminopeptidase Q) was up-regulated in the placenta of preeclamptic patients. However, physiological and pathological functions of LVRN remained to be unknown. Here we characterized Lvrn function during placentation in mice. RT-PCR showed that Lvrn is expressed in both fetus and placenta during embryogenesis, and several adult tissues. When we overexpressed Lvrn in a placenta-specific manner using lentiviral vectors, we did not see any defects in both placentae and fetuses...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Sizhe Chen, Weiwei Cheng, Yan Chen, Xiaohua Liu
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between mode of first delivery with subsequent placenta previa, placenta accreta/increta and significant postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). METHOD: This retrospective cohort study included women with two consecutive singleton deliveries between 2007-2017 at our institution if the women were nulliparous and delivered at term at the time of first delivery. The first pregnancy delivery mode was classified as (1) vaginal delivery, (2) antepartum caesarean delivery (CD) without labor, or (3) intrapartum CD after onset of labor...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Juan Carlos Bustos, Alvaro Herrera, Waldo Sepulveda
OBJECTIVE: To analyze placental vascular resistance and the role of placental insufficiency in the etiology of reduced fetal growth in fetuses with trisomy 21 as determined by umbilical artery (UA) Doppler velocimetry. METHODS: Second- and third-trimester UA Doppler ultrasound studies were performed in fetuses with trisomy 21 at the time of clinically indicated obstetric ultrasound assessment. The UA pulsatility index (PI) and half-peak systolic velocity deceleration time (hPSV-DT) were measured and recorded...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Hui-Qing Lu, Rong Hu
Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, however, the aetiology of preeclampsia still remains unclear. It has been widely accepted that the disease results from insufficient spiral artery remodelling, leading to placental ischaemia and the release of a variety of factors. In recent decades, a large number of studies have observed an abnormal immune response in preeclamptic women and studies of both patients and animal models have shown alterations in the function or the number of immune agents...
February 9, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Hangyu Wu, Siyang Wu, Yingchao Zhu, Mei Ye, Jun Shen, Yan Liu, Yisheng Zhang, Shizhong Bu
BACKGROUND: Circular RNA (circRNA) is involved in the pathological processes of various diseases. CircRNA is more stable than linear RNAs and is expressed in high levels in tissues, making it a better biomarker candidate than linear RNAs. In this study, we aimed to identify potential circRNA biomarkers of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted using data and samples from women treated at a hospital in China between July 10, 2017, and February 15, 2018...
February 8, 2019: Clinical Epigenetics
Evangelia Koutelou, Li Wang, Andria Schibler, Hsueh-Ping Chao, Xianghong Kuang, Kevin Lin, Yue Lu, Jianjun Shen, Collene R Jeter, Andrew Salinger, Marenda Wilson, Yi Chun Chen, Boyko S Atanassov, Dean G Tang, Sharon Yr Dent
Usp22, a component of the SAGA complex, is over expressed in highly aggressive cancers, but the normal functions of this deubiquitinase are not well defined. We determined that loss of Usp22 in mice results in embryonic lethality due to defects in extra-embryonic placental tissues and failure to establish proper vascular interactions with the maternal circulatory system. These phenotypes arise from abnormal gene expression patterns that reflect defective kinase signaling, including TGFβ and several receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways...
February 4, 2019: Development
Kelsey N Olson, Leanne M Redman, Jenny L Sones
Preeclampsia (PE) is a devastating adverse outcome of pregnancy. Characterized by maternal hypertension, when left untreated PE can result in death of both mother and baby. The cause of PE remains unknown and there is no way to predict which women will develop PE during pregnancy. The only known treatment is delivery of both the fetus and placenta, therefore an abnormal placenta is thought to play a causal role. Women with obesity before pregnancy have an increased chance of developing PE. Increased adiposity results in a heightened state of systemic inflammation which can influence placental development...
February 4, 2019: Physiological Genomics
Pascale Gerbaud, Padma Murthi, Jean Guibourdenche, Fabien Guimiot, Benoit Sarazin, Danièle Evain-Brion, Josette Badet, Guillaume Pidoux
Placental development is particularly altered in trisomy 21 (T21) affected pregnancies. We previously described in T21-affected placentae an abnormal paracrine crosstalk between villus mesenchymal core and villus trophoblasts. T21-affected are know to be characterized by their hypovascularity. However, the causes of this anomaly remain not fully elucidated. Therefore, hypothesis of an abnormal paracrine cross-talk between fetal mesenchymal core and placental endothelial cells (PLEC) was evocated. Villus mesenchymal cells from control (CMC) and T21 placentae (T21MC) were isolated and grown in culture to allow their characterization and collection of conditioned media for functional analyses (respectively CMC-CM and T21MC-CM)...
January 30, 2019: Endocrinology
Mohammad-Taher Moradi, Zohreh Rahimi, Asad Vaisi-Raygani
OBJECTIVE: Dysregulation of lncRNAs and the absence of coordination between them could affect the normal placentation, uteroplacental circulation, and endothelial cell function. All these misfunctions can finally lead to preeclampsia. METHODS:  In the present review, we discuss current literature (till May 2018) about lncRNAs expression and function in the placenta, trophoblast cells, and decidua. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: It is explained how altered expression of the lncRNAs and abnormal regulation of them affect the risk of preeclampsia...
February 1, 2019: Hypertension in Pregnancy
Cécile Guenot, John Kingdom, Maud De Rham, Maria Osterheld, Sarah Keating, Yvan Vial, Tim Van Mieghem, Nicole Jastrow, Luigi Raio, Marialuigia Spinelli, Letizia Di Meglio, Gihad Chalouhi, David Baud
BACKGROUND: Placental mesenchymal dysplasia (PMD) is a rare vascular and connective placental anomaly, which is often associated with severe fetal and/or maternal complications. The diversity of presentation of PMD challenges diagnosis and effective pregnancy management. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to review cases presenting at 7 tertiary centers worldwide over the last decade and to study the occurrence of obstetric and neonatal complications. STUDY DESIGN: Pathology databases from 7 tertiary hospitals were screened for cases of PMD (between 2007-2017)...
January 17, 2019: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
R I Stryuk, C A Burns, M P Filippov, Ya V Brytkova, I V Borisov, E L Barkova, T A Gomova, E A Kozina, O A Nagirnyak
AIM: the Aim of the BEREG Registry was to analyze the prevalence and structure of cardiovascular diseases, associated comorbid conditions and assess their effects on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes in real clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In Tula city regional perinatal center the observation study named "Assessment of the clinical condition of the pregnant women with cardiovascular disease during gestation, at child delivery, at the early postpartum period and at twelve months after childbirth and assesment of perinatal outcomes, condition of the fetus and the newborn and the quality of treatment of these patients groups...
February 14, 2018: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
So Young Kim, Cheri A Koetzner, Anne F Payne, Gregory J Nierode, Yanlei Yu, Ru-Feng Wang, Evan Barr, Jonathan S Dordick, Laura Kramer, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped RNA virus from the flavivirus family that can cause fetal neural abnormalities in pregnant women. Previously, we established that ZIKV-EP (envelope protein) binds to human placental chondroitin sulfate (CS), suggesting that CS may be a potential host cell surface receptor in ZIKV pathogenesis. In this study, we further characterized GAG disaccharide composition in other biological tissues (i.e., mosquitoes, fetal brain cells, eye tissues) in ZIKV pathogenesis to investigate the role of tissue specific GAGs...
January 30, 2019: Biochemistry
Rebecca L Openshaw, Jaedeok Kwon, Alison McColl, Josef M Penninger, Jonathan Cavanagh, Judith A Pratt, Brian J Morris
BACKGROUND: Important insight into the mechanisms through which gene-environmental interactions cause schizophrenia can be achieved through preclinical studies combining prenatal immune stimuli with disease-related genetic risk modifications. Accumulating evidence associates JNK signalling molecules, including MKK7/MAP2K7, with genetic risk. We tested the hypothesis that Map2k7 gene haploinsufficiency in mice would alter the prenatal immune response to the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (polyI:C), specifically investigating the impact of maternal versus foetal genetic variants...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Kazumichi Fujioka, Kosuke Nishida, Mariko Ashina, Shinya Abe, Sachiyo Fukushima, Toshihiko Ikuta, Shohei Ohyama, Ichiro Morioka, Kazumoto Iijima
BACKGROUND: Small for gestational age (SGA) babies experience fetal growth restriction because of placental insufficiency, and aberrant fetal growth has been linked to DNA methylation in the placenta. An imprinted gene encoding retrotransposon-like protein 1 (RTL1) is regulated by DNA methylation in the promoter region and plays a key role in placental development. We therefore investigated the DNA methylation status of RTL1 in the placenta of infants with severe SGA. METHODS: We extracted DNA from the placenta of appropriate for gestational age (AGA; gestational age 35 ± 6 weeks, birthweight 2292 ± 1006 g; n = 12), SGA (birthweight z-score ≤-2 SD, 33 ± 5 weeks, 1373 ± 580 g; n = 11), and severe SGA (birthweight z-score ≤-3 SD, 33 ± 4 weeks, 1145 g ± 423 g; n = 7) infants, and we determined the methylation rates of five CpG sites in the CG4 (82,275,427-82,275,737 in NT_026437 sequence, NCBI database) region of the RTL1 promoter by pyrosequencing...
January 5, 2019: Pediatrics and Neonatology
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