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Bicarbonate transport

Altaf Lone, G Jeelani, Rajendrakumar D Deshpande, Shichang Kang, Jie Huang
Snowpack and glacial melt samples were collected to understand the hydrochemical, isotopic characteristics and the source of Hg contamination in high altitude glacierized Himalayan catchment. Both the snow and glacial melt were acidic in nature with calcium and magnesium as the dominant cations and bicarbonate and chloride as the dominant anions. The major ion concentrations for cations were found to be Ca2+  > Mg2+  > Na+  > K+ and HCO3 -  > Cl-  > SO4 2-  > NO3 - for anions...
March 9, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
A K M Shamsuddin, Paul M Quinton
Although small airways account for the largest fraction of the total conducting airway surfaces, the epithelial fluid and electrolyte transport in small, native airway epithelia has not been well characterized. Investigations have been limited, no doubt, by the complex tissue architecture as well as by its inaccessibility, small dimensions, and lack of applicable assays, especially in human tissues. To better understand how the critically thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) is maintained, we applied a 'capillary'-Ussing chamber (area ≈1 mm2 ) to measure ion transport properties of bronchioles with diameters of ~ 2 mm isolated from resected specimens of excised human lungs...
March 6, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Teresa Wasiluk, Mina Roueinfar, Kayla Hiryak, Maria Torsiello, Alexander Miner, Jennifer Lee, Michael Venditto, William Terzaghi, Del Lucent, Adam L VanWert
ClopHensor, a fluorescent fusion protein, is a dual function biosensor that has been utilized as a tool for the simultaneous measurement of intracellular chloride and pH in cells. ClopHensor has traditionally been used in conjunction with fluorescence microscopy for single cell measurements. Here, we present a promising multi-well format advancement for the use of ClopHensor as a potential high-throughput method capable of measuring fluorescence signal intensity across a well of confluent cells with highly reproducible results...
March 5, 2019: Biology Open
Michele Fiore, Claudia Cossu, Valeria Capurro, Cristiana Picco, Alessandra Ludovico, Marcin Mielczarek, Israel Carreira-Barral, Emanuela Caci, Debora Baroni, Roberto Quesada, Oscar Moran
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal autosomal recessive genetic disease that originates from the defective function of the CFTR protein, a cAMP-dependent anion channel involved in fluid transport across epithelium. Due to their capability to replace the ion transport independently from the genetic mutation that affects the CFTR, small synthetic transmembrane anion transporters, named anionophores, are candidates as new potential CF therapeutics. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: With the aim of evaluating their impact on cell physiology, we have analysed the transport properties of five compounds, three prodigiosines and two tambjamines...
March 1, 2019: British Journal of Pharmacology
Emily Hepburn, Casey Madden, Drew Szabo, Timothy L Coggan, Bradley Clarke, Matthew Currell
The extent of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in groundwater surrounding legacy landfills is currently poorly constrained. Seventeen PFAS were analysed in groundwater surrounding legacy landfills in a major Australian urban re-development precinct. Sampling locations (n = 13) included sites installed directly in waste material and down-gradient from landfills, some of which exhibited evidence of leachate contamination including elevated concentrations of ammonia-N (≤106 mg/L), bicarbonate (≤1,740 mg/L) and dissolved methane (≤10...
February 8, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Ning-Yan Yang, Taro Mukaibo, Ira Kurtz, James E Melvin
The HCO3 - secretion mechanism in salivary glands is unclear but is thought to rely on the co-ordinated activity of multiple ion transport proteins including members of the Slc4 family of bicarbonate transporters. Slc4a7 was immunolocalized to the apical membrane of mouse submandibular duct cells. In contrast, Slc4a7 was not detected in acinar cells, and correspondingly, Slc4a7 disruption did not affect fluid secretion in response to cholinergic or β-adrenergic stimulation in the submandibular gland (SMG)...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Marianne Skov, Christine Rønne Hansen, Tacjana Pressler
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a severe, monogenic, autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator) gene, where disturbed chloride and bicarbonate transportation in epithelial cells results in a multiorgan disease with primarily pulmonary infections and pancreatic insufficiency. In 1968, the Copenhagen CF Center was established, and centralized care of CF patients with monthly control was introduced. Close monitoring and treatment of Pseudomonas lung infection as well as segregation of patients with different infection status improved the clinical outcome as well as survival...
February 14, 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Dusik Kim, Junwei Huang, Arnaud Billet, Asmahan Abu-Arish, Julie Goepp, Elizabeth Matthes, Marc A Tewfik, Saul Frenkiel, John W Hanrahan
Bicarbonate facilitates mucin unpacking and bacterial killing however its transport mechanisms in the airways are not well understood. cAMP stimulates anion efflux through the CFTR (ABCC7) anion channel and this is defective in CF. The anion exchanger pendrin (SLC26A4) also mediates HCO3- efflux and is upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines. Here we examined pendrin and CFTR expression and their contributions to HCO3- secretion by human nasal and bronchial epithelia. In native tissue, both proteins were most abundant at the apical pole of ciliated surface cells with little expression in submucosal glands...
February 11, 2019: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Loretta Ferrera, Debora Baroni, Oscar Moran
Deletion of phenylalanine at position 508, F508del, the most frequent mutation among Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, destabilizes the protein, thus causing both a folding and a trafficking defect, resulting in a dramatic reduction in expression of CFTR. In vitro treatment with lumacaftor produces an enhancement of anion transport in cells. We studied the permeability properties of the CFTR mutant F508del treated with the corrector lumacaftor, showing that the rescued protein has selectivity properties different than the wild type CFTR, showing an augmented bicarbonate permeability...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Yuanmei Liang, Jie Tang, Yifan Luo, Michal B Kaczmarek, Xingkang Li, Maurycy Daroch
Thermophilic unicellular cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus PKUAC-SCTE542, has been developed as a thermophilic photosynthetic microbial cell factory for CO2 utilisation. The strain exhibits its highest growth rate around 55 °C, can withstand up to 15% CO2 , and up to 0.5 M concentration of sodium bicarbonate. The strain is also capable of resisting a 200 ppm concentration of NO and SO2 in simulated flue gasses, and these compounds have a positive effect on its growth. Whole genome sequencing of the strain revealed the presence of numerous forms of active transport of nutrients and additional chaperones acting as the predominant mechanism of strain adaptation to high temperatures...
January 22, 2019: Bioresource Technology
Emanuela Berrino, Claudiu T Supuran
In all living species, pH regulation is a tightly controlled process, with a plethora of proteins involved in its regulation. These include sodium-proton exchangers, carbonic anhydrases, anion exchangers, bicarbonate transporters/cotransporters, H+ -ATPases, and monocarboxylate transporters. All of them play crucial roles in acid-base balancing, both in eukaryotic as well as in prokaryotic organisms, making them interesting drug targets for the management of pathological events (in)directly involved in pH regulation...
March 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Milena Kluge, Eun Namkoong, Shokoufeh Khakipoor, Kyungpyo Park, Eleni Roussa
Bicarbonate concentration in saliva is controlled by the action of acid-base transporters in salivary duct cells. We show for the first time expression of ATP6V1B1 in submandibular gland and introduce transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) as a novel regulator of V-ATPase subunits. Using QRT-PCR, immunoblotting, biotinylation of surface proteins, immunofluorescence, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and intracellular H(+ ) recording with H(+ )-sensitive dye 2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein we show that in the human submandibular gland (HSG) cell line, activation of TGF-β signaling upregulates ATP6V1E1 and ATP6V1B2, downregulates ATP6V1B1, and has no effect on ATP6V1A...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Kathleen E Hunt, Charles Innis, Constance Merigo, Elizabeth A Burgess, Terry Norton, Deborah Davis, Adam E Kennedy, C Loren Buck
Sea turtle rehabilitation clinics and aquaria frequently transport stranded sea turtles long distances out of water, e.g. for release at sites with appropriate water temperatures. Endangered Kemp's ridley turtles ( Lepidochelys kempii ) are known to exhibit an adrenal stress response during such transports. In an opportunistic study of turtles transported by road from Massachusetts to Georgia for release, we tested whether placing turtles in saltwater pools for short periods after transport would help turtles recover from transport-related stress...
2019: Conservation Physiology
Alejandro Ciocci Pardo, Luisa F González Arbeláez, Juliana C Fantinelli, Ernesto A Aiello, Susana M Mosca
The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate co-transporter isoform 1 (NBCe1) plays an important role in ischemia-reperfusion injury. The cardioprotective action of an antibody directed to the extracellular loop 3 (a-L3) of NBCe1 was previously demonstrated by us. However, the role of a-L3 on mitochondrial post-ischemic alterations has not yet been determined. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of a-L3 on post-ischemic mitochondrial state and dynamics analysing the involved mechanisms. Isolated rat hearts were assigned to the following groups: 1) Non-ischemic control (NIC): 110 min of perfusion; 2) Ischemic control (IC): 30 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion (R); 3) a-L3: a-L3 was administered during the initial 10 min of R; 4) SB + a-L3: SB202190 (p38MAPK inhibitor) plus a-L3...
January 4, 2019: Biochemical Pharmacology
Toru Watanabe
Primary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a rare genetic disorder caused by impaired distal acidification due to a failure of type A intercalated cells (A-ICs) in the collecting tubule. dRTA is characterized by persistent hyperchloremia, a normal plasma anion gap, and the inability to maximally lower urinary pH in the presence of systemic metabolic acidosis. Common clinical features of dRTA include vomiting, failure to thrive, polyuria, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, growth delay, and rickets...
2018: Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Gwenn M M Hennon, Olivia M Williamson, María D Hernández Limón, Sheean T Haley, Sonya T Dyhrman
Heterosigma akashiwo is a raphidophyte known for forming ichthyotoxic blooms. In order to predict the potential impacts of rising CO2 on H. akashiwo it is necessary to understand the factors influencing growth rates over a range of CO2 concentrations. Here we examined the physiology and gene expression response of H. akashiwo to concentrations from 200 to 1000ppm CO2 . Growth rate data were combined from this and previous studies and fit with a CO2 limitation-inhibition model that revealed an apparent growth optimum around 600-800ppm CO2 ...
October 24, 2018: Protist
Catherine Banks, Laura Freeman, Do Yeon Cho, Bradford A Woodworth
Sinonasal respiratory epithelium is a highly regulated barrier that employs mucociliary clearance (MCC) as the airways first line of defense. The biological properties of the airway surface liquid (ASL), combined with coordinated ciliary beating, are critical components of the mucociliary apparatus. The ASL volume and viscosity is modulated, in part, by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The CFTR is an anion transporter of chloride (Cl- ) and bicarbonate (HCO3 - ) that is located on the apical surface of respiratory epithelium and exocrine glandular epithelium...
September 2018: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
A S Lapashina, B A Feniouk
H+-FO F1 -ATP synthase (F-ATPase, F-type ATPase, FO F1 complex) catalyzes ATP synthesis from ADP and inorganic phosphate in eubacteria, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and some archaea. ATP synthesis is powered by the transmembrane proton transport driven by the proton motive force (PMF) generated by the respiratory or photosynthetic electron transport chains. When the PMF is decreased or absent, ATP synthase catalyzes the reverse reaction, working as an ATP-dependent proton pump. The ATPase activity of the enzyme is regulated by several mechanisms, of which the most conserved is the non-competitive inhibition by the MgADP complex (ADP-inhibition)...
October 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Silvia Iacobelli, Jean-Pierre Guignard
Acid-base homeostasis is one of the most tightly regulated systems in the body. Maintaining the acid-base balance is particularly challenging for preterm infants and growing neonates. The kidney, which represents the crucial ultimate line of defense against disturbances of acid-base balance, undergoes a complex maturation process during the transition from a fetal to an extra-uterine environment. This review article summarizes the physiology of acid-base regulation by the immature human kidney and discusses disorders of acid-base balance, such as metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, and respiratory alkalosis...
November 19, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Pengchao Xie, Li Zhang, Jinhui Chen, Jiaqi Ding, Ying Wan, Songlin Wang, Zongping Wang, Aijiao Zhou, Jun Ma
Degradation of propranolol (PrP) by a combined zero-valent iron and sulfite system under simulated sunlight irradiation (ZVI/sulfite/photo) was investigated. Simulated sunlight irradiation enhanced the degradation of PrP by accelerating the decomposition of ferric sulfite complex as a result to producing sulfite radical (SO3 •- ). As bubbles would block the transport of photons in the reaction solution, mechanical aeration rather than purging air was suggested to sustain the essential dissolved oxygen. The degradation of PrP increased with the elevation of initial ZVI concentration from 0...
October 31, 2018: Water Research
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