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Retrosplenial cortex

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711509/alcohol-expectancy-and-cerebral-responses-to-cue-elicited-craving-in-adult-nondependent-drinkers
#1
Simon Zhornitsky, Sheng Zhang, Jaime S Ide, Herta H Chao, Wuyi Wang, Thang M Le, Robert F Leeman, Jinbo Bi, John H Krystal, Chiang-Shan R Li
BACKGROUND: Positive alcohol expectancy (AE) contributes to excessive drinking. Many imaging studies have examined cerebral responses to alcohol cues and how these regional processes related to problem drinking. However, it remains unclear how AE relates to cue response and whether AE mediates the relationship between cue response and problem drinking. METHODS: A total of 61 nondependent drinkers were assessed with the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while exposed to alcohol and neutral cues...
December 12, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30644179/altered-functional-connectivity-in-binge-eating-disorder-and-bulimia-nervosa-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#2
Marion A Stopyra, Joe J Simon, Mandy Skunde, Stephan Walther, Martin Bendszus, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich
INTRODUCTION: The etiology of bulimic-type eating (BTE) disorders such as binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN) is still largely unknown. Brain networks subserving the processing of rewards, emotions, and cognitive control seem to play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Therefore, further investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings are needed to discern abnormal connectivity patterns in BTE disorders. METHODS: The present study aimed to investigate functional as well as seed-based connectivity within well-defined brain networks...
January 15, 2019: Brain and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30605880/default-mode-network-alterations-in-individuals-with-high-trait-anxiety-an-eeg-functional-connectivity-study
#3
Claudio Imperatori, Benedetto Farina, Mauro Adenzato, Enrico Maria Valenti, Cristina Murgia, Giacomo Della Marca, Riccardo Brunetti, Elena Fontana, Rita B Ardito
BACKGROUND: Although several researches investigated Default Mode Network (DMN) alterations in individuals with anxiety disorders, up to now no studies have investigated DMN functional connectivity in non-clinical individuals with high-trait-anxiety using quantitative electroencephalography (EEG). Here, the main aim was to extend previous findings investigating the association between trait anxiety and DMN EEG functional connectivity. METHODS: Twenty-three individuals with high-trait-anxiety and twenty-four controls were enrolled...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30600568/where-is-the-where-in-the-brain-a-meta-analysis-of-neuroimaging-studies-on-spatial-cognition
#4
Giorgia Cona, Cristina Scarpazza
Spatial representations are processed in the service of several different cognitive functions. The present study capitalizes on the Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) method of meta-analysis to identify: (a) the shared neural activations among spatial functions to reveal the "core" network of spatial processing; (b) the specific neural activations associated with each of these functions. Following PRISMA guidelines, a total of 133 fMRI and PET studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall analysis showed that the core network of spatial processing comprises regions that are symmetrically distributed on both hemispheres and that include dorsal frontoparietal regions, presupplementary motor area, anterior insula, and frontal operculum...
January 1, 2019: Human Brain Mapping
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30597624/longitudinal-tau-accumulation-and-atrophy-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Theresa M Harrison, Renaud La Joie, Anne Maass, Suzanne L Baker, Kaitlin Swinnerton, Laura Fenton, Taylor J Mellinger, Lauren Edwards, Julie Pham, Bruce L Miller, Gil D Rabinovici, William J Jagust
OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of tau accumulation in healthy older adults and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as the relationship of tau accumulation to cortical atrophy. METHODS: Two longitudinal flortaucipir (FTP)-PET and MRI scans were acquired from 42 healthy older adults (OA; 21 PiB+; age=77.6±4.6; 25F/17M) and 19 PiB+ patients with AD (age=63.1±10.3; 12F/7M) over 1-3 years follow-up. FTP change, structural MRI measures of atrophy, and crossmodal correlations were examined on a voxelwise level...
December 31, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30561118/encoding-of-3d-head-direction-information-in-the-human-brain
#6
Misun Kim, Eleanor A Maguire
Head direction cells are critical for navigation because they convey information about which direction an animal is facing within an environment. To date, most studies on head direction encoding have been conducted on a horizontal two-dimensional (2D) plane, and little is known about how three-dimensional (3D) direction information is encoded in the brain despite humans and other animals living in a 3D world. Here, we investigated head direction encoding in the human brain while participants moved within a virtual 3D "spaceship" environment...
December 18, 2018: Hippocampus
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30559115/functional-network-interactions-at-rest-underlie-individual-differences-in-memory-ability
#7
Mariët van Buuren, Isabella C Wagner, Guillén Fernández
Intrinsic network interactions may underlie individual differences in the ability to remember. The default mode network (DMN) comprises subnetworks implicated in memory, and interactions between the DMN and frontoparietal network (FPN) were shown to support mnemonic processing. However, it is unclear if such interactions during resting-state predict episodic memory ability. We investigated whether intrinsic network interactions within and between the DMN and FPN are related to individual differences in memory performance...
January 2019: Learning & Memory
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30504281/a-posterior-anterior-distinction-between-scene-perception-and-scene-construction-in-human-medial-parietal-cortex
#8
Edward H Silson, Adrian W Gilmore, Sarah E Kalinowski, Adam Steel, Alexis Kidder, Alex Martin, Chris I Baker
Human retrosplenial complex (RSC), located in medial parietal cortex, has been implicated in numerous cognitive functions, including scene perception, spatial navigation, and autobiographical memory retrieval. Recently, a posterior-anterior distinction within RSC was proposed, such that posterior aspects process scene-related visual information (constituting a "medial place area;" MPA), whereas anterior aspects process information that is vividly retrieved from memory, thereby supporting remembering and potentially navigation...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30458222/brain-sub-region-specific-effects-of-olanzapine-on-c-fos-expression-of-chronically-socially-isolated-rats
#9
Andrijana Stanisavljević, Ivana Perić, Peter Gass, Dragos Inta, Undine E Lang, Stefan Borgwardt, Dragana Filipović
Olanzapine (Olz) is an atypical antipsychotic used to treat depression, anxiety and schizophrenia, which can be caused by chronic psychosocial stress. c-Fos protein expression has been used as an indirect marker of neuronal activity in response to various forms of stress or pharmacological treatments. We examined the effects of a 3-week treatment of Olz (7.5 mg/kg/day) on c-Fos protein expression in stress-relevant brain sub/regions, its relationship with isolation-induced behavioral changes, and potential sites of Olz action on control and male rats exposed to 6 weeks of chronic social isolation (CSIS), an animal model of depression...
November 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30429814/rapid-eye-movements-in-sleep-furnish-a-unique-probe-into-consciousness
#10
REVIEW
Charles C-H Hong, James H Fallon, Karl J Friston, James C Harris
The neural correlates of rapid eye movements (REMs) in sleep are extraordinarily robust; including REM-locked multisensory-motor integration and accompanying activation in the retrosplenial cortex, the supplementary eye field and areas encompassing cholinergic basal nucleus (Hong et al., 2009). The phenomenology of REMs speaks to the notion that perceptual experience in both sleep and wakefulness is a constructive process - in which we generate predictions of sensory inputs and then test those predictions through actively sampling the sensorium with eye movements...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30416111/-delusional-misidentification-syndromes-in-organic-brain-disorders
#11
Yoshinari Kawai
Delusional misidentification syndromes (DMSs) are a fascinating group of disorders involving a fixed, false belief about the identity of persons, places, and objects in one's environment. DMSs include Capgras syndrome, Frégoli syndrome, intermetamorphosis, the syndrome of subjective doubles, and reduplicative paramnesia. Although DMSs have been described in patients with focal neurological lesions, they are more commonly associated with neurodegenerative diseases, specifically dementia with Lewy bodies. Lesion network mapping was used to identify brain regions functionally connected to the lesion locations in patients with lesion-induced DMSs...
November 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30410438/the-neural-basis-of-individual-differences-in-directional-sense
#12
Heather Burte, Benjamin O Turner, Michael B Miller, Mary Hegarty
Individuals differ greatly in their ability to learn and navigate through environments. One potential source of this variation is "directional sense" or the ability to identify, maintain, and compare allocentric headings. Allocentric headings are facing directions that are fixed to the external environment, such as cardinal directions. Measures of the ability to identify and compare allocentric headings, using photographs of familiar environments, have shown significant individual and strategy differences; however, the neural basis of these differences is unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30367943/distribution-of-hap1-immunoreactive-cells-in-the-retrosplenial-retrohippocampal-area-of-adult-rat-brain-and-its-application-to-a-refined-neuroanatomical-understanding-of-the-region
#13
Greggory Wroblewski, Md Nabiul Islam, Akie Yanai, Mir Rubayet Jahan, Koh-Hei Masumoto, Koh Shinoda
Huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) is a neural interactor of huntingtin in Huntington's disease and interacts with gene products in a number of other neurodegenerative diseases. In normal brains, HAP1 is expressed abundantly in the hypothalamus and limbic-associated regions. These areas tend to be spared from neurodegeneration while those with little HAP1 are frequently neurodegenerative targets, suggesting its role as a protective factor against apoptosis. In light of the relationship between neurodegenerative diseases and deterioration of higher nervous activity, it is important to definitively clarify HAP1 expression in a cognitively important brain region, the retrosplenial-retrohippocampal area...
December 1, 2018: Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30367247/meta-analysis-of-functional-subdivisions-within-human-posteromedial-cortex
#14
Yuefeng Huang, Jeffrey Hullfish, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
The posteromedial cortex (PMC)-comprising posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), retrosplenial cortex (RSC), and the precuneus (PrC)-is perhaps best known for its involvement in the default mode network. There is no consensus regarding the specific functions of PMC, however, and its component regions each exhibit distinct, but partially overlapping functional profiles. To date, there has been minimal effort to disentangle the functions of these regions. In the present study, we use Neurosynth ( http://neurosynth...
October 26, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30346212/neurofunctional-correlates-of-geometry-and-feature-use-in-a-virtual-environment
#15
Martha R Forloines, Meredith A Reid, Andie M Thompkins, Jennifer L Robinson, Jeffrey S Katz
There are mixed results regarding the differentiation of neurofunctional correlates of spatial abilities. Previous studies employed complex environments or alternate memory tasks which could potentially add to inconsistencies across studies of navigation. To help elucidate the existing mixed findings, we conducted a study in a simplistic environment without a supplemental memory task in order to examine navigationally relevant neural function using fMRI. Participants completed a virtual navigation task where they learned the relationship between landmarks, environmental features, and a goal...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30321028/experience-memory-and-the-places-they-meet
#16
REVIEW
Kiriana K Cowansage
Studies of learning and memory have made significant advances in characterizing the mechanisms of single memories, formed when surprising and unpredictable events trigger synaptic modifications in response to tightly timed coincidental cues. Yet outside the laboratory setting, few natural experiences are wholly unique, and much of our behavior is shaped progressively through the interactions of perceived experiences, recently formed memories and distant acquired knowledge. Despite the necessity of these memory dynamics, relatively little is known about how previously established associations are accessed, updated, and applied to inform new learning at the appropriate moments in time...
October 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30321027/anterior-thalamic-nuclei-but-not-retrosplenial-cortex-lesions-abolish-latent-inhibition-in-rats
#17
Andrew J D Nelson, Anna L Powell, Lisa Kinnavane, John P Aggleton
The present study examined the effects of excitotoxic lesions in 2 closely related structures, the anterior thalamic nuclei and the retrosplenial cortex, on latent inhibition. Latent inhibition occurs when nonreinforced preexposure to a stimulus retards the subsequent acquisition of conditioned responding to that stimulus. Latent inhibition was assessed in a within-subject procedure with auditory stimuli and food reinforcement. As expected, sham-operated animals were slower to acquire conditioned responding to a stimulus that had previously been experienced without consequence, relative to a non-preexposed stimulus...
October 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30321026/when-is-the-rat-retrosplenial-cortex-required-for-stimulus-integration
#18
Andrew J D Nelson, Emma L Hindley, Seralynne D Vann, John P Aggleton
The rodent retrosplenial cortex is known to be vital for spatial cognition, but evidence has also pointed to a role in processing nonspatial information. It has been suggested that the retrosplenial cortex may serve as a site of integration of incoming sensory information. To examine this proposal, the current set of experiments assessed the impact of excitotoxic lesions in the retrosplenial cortex on two behavioral tasks that tax animals' ability to process multiple and overlapping environmental stimuli. In Experiment 1, rats with retrosplenial lesions acquired a negative patterning discrimination, a form of configural learning that can be solved only by learning the conjunction of cues...
October 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30321025/converging-meta-analytic-and-connectomic-evidence-for-functional-subregions-within-the-human-retrosplenial-region
#19
Elizabeth R Chrastil, Sean M Tobyne, Rachel K Nauer, Allen E Chang, Chantal E Stern
Interest in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) has surged in recent years, as this region has been implicated in a range of cognitive processes. Previously reported anatomical and functional definitions of the human RSC encompass a larger area than expected from underlying cytoarchitectonic profiles. Here, we used a large-scale, unbiased, and data-driven approach combining functional MRI meta-analysis and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) methods to test the nature of this heterogeneity. The automated toolset Neurosynth was used to conduct meta-analyses in order to (a) identify heterogeneous areas in the retrosplenial region (RS region) associated with one or more cognitive domains, and (b) contrast the activation profiles related to these domains...
October 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30321024/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-the-cognitive-functions-of-the-retrosplenial-cortex
#20
David J Bucci, Chantal E Stern
This special issue on the cognitive functions of the retrosplenial cortex highlights progress that has been made in recent years in understanding the anatomy and function of the retrosplenial cortex in both animals and humans. The articles in this issue of Behavioral Neuroscience use a number of different approaches that together provide an up-to-date account of recent progress in understanding how the retrosplenial cortex contributes to cognition, with an emphasis on its functional role in spatial navigation and learning and memory...
October 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
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