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Microbiome rectal cancer

Michael A Liss, James Robert White, Martin Goros, Jonathan Gelfond, Robin Leach, Teresa Johnson-Pais, Zhao Lai, Elizabeth Rourke, Joseph Basler, Donna Ankerst, Dimpy P Shah
BACKGROUND: The fecal microbiome is associated with prostate cancer risk factors (obesity, inflammation) and can metabolize and produce various products that may influence cancer but have yet to be defined in prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To investigate gut bacterial diversity, identify specific metabolic pathways associated with disease, and develop a microbiome risk profile for prostate cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: After prospective collection of 133 rectal swab samples 2 wk before the transrectal prostate biopsy, we perform 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing on 105 samples (64 with cancer, 41 without cancer)...
July 12, 2018: European Urology
G Armstrong, J Croft, N Corrigan, J M Brown, V Goh, P Quirke, C Hulme, D Tolan, A Kirby, R Cahill, P R O'Connell, D Miskovic, M Coleman, D Jayne
AIM: Anastomotic leak (AL) is a major complication of rectal cancer surgery. Despite advances in surgical practice, the rates of AL have remained static, at around 10-15%. The aetiology of AL is multifactorial, but one of the most crucial risk factors, which is mostly under the control of the surgeon, is blood supply to the anastomosis. The MRC/NIHR IntAct study will determine whether assessment of anastomotic perfusion using a fluorescent dye (indocyanine green) and near-infrared laparoscopy can minimize the rate of AL leak compared with conventional white-light laparoscopy...
August 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Li Liu, Fred K Tabung, Xuehong Zhang, Jonathan A Nowak, Zhi Rong Qian, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Daniel Nevo, Susan Bullman, Kosuke Mima, Keisuke Kosumi, Annacarolina da Silva, Mingyang Song, Yin Cao, Tyler S Twombly, Yan Shi, Hongli Liu, Mancang Gu, Hideo Koh, Wanwan Li, Chunxia Du, Yang Chen, Chenxi Li, Wenbin Li, Raaj S Mehta, Kana Wu, Molin Wang, Aleksander D Kostic, Marios Giannakis, Wendy S Garrett, Curtis Hutthenhower, Andrew T Chan, Charles S Fuchs, Reiko Nishihara, Shuji Ogino, Edward L Giovannucci
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Specific nutritional components are likely to induce intestinal inflammation, which is characterized by increased levels of interleukin 6 (IL6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-receptor superfamily member 1B (TNFRSF1B) in the circulation and promotes colorectal carcinogenesis. The inflammatory effects of a diet can be estimated based on an empiric dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score, calculated based on intake of 18 foods associated with plasma levels of IL6, CRP, and TNFRSF1B...
October 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Sebastian Stintzing, Sabine Tejpar, Peter Gibbs, Lars Thiebach, Heinz-Josef Lenz
Metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) is a heterogeneous disease with differing outcomes and clinical responses and poor prognosis. CRCs can be characterised by their primary tumour location within the colon. The left-sided colon, derived from the hindgut, includes the distal third of the transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. The right-sided colon, derived from the midgut, includes the proximal two-thirds of the transverse colon, ascending colon and caecum. Sometimes, the rectum is described separately, despite originating from the hindgut, and in many clinical series, the left-sided colon includes only tumours within and distal to the splenic flexure...
October 2017: European Journal of Cancer
E Ramsay Camp, Logan D Patterson, Mark Kester, Christina Voelkel-Johnson
Therapy of colorectal cancer (CRC), especially a subset known as locally advanced rectal cancer, is challenged by progression and recurrence. Sphingolipids, a lipid subtype with vital roles in cellular function, play an important role in CRC and impact on therapeutic outcomes. In this review we discuss how dietary sphingolipids or the gut microbiome via alterations in sphingolipids influence CRC carcinogenesis. In addition, we discuss the expression of sphingolipid enzymes in the gastro-intestinal tract, their alterations in CRC, and the implications for therapy responsiveness...
September 2, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Kosuke Mima, Yin Cao, Andrew T Chan, Zhi Rong Qian, Jonathan A Nowak, Yohei Masugi, Yan Shi, Mingyang Song, Annacarolina da Silva, Mancang Gu, Wanwan Li, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Keisuke Kosumi, Akiko Hanyuda, Li Liu, Aleksandar D Kostic, Marios Giannakis, Susan Bullman, Caitlin A Brennan, Danny A Milner, Hideo Baba, Levi A Garraway, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Wendy S Garrett, Curtis Huttenhower, Matthew Meyerson, Edward L Giovannucci, Charles S Fuchs, Reiko Nishihara, Shuji Ogino
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests a possible role of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal carcinogenesis, especially in right-sided proximal colorectum. Considering a change in bowel contents and microbiome from proximal to distal colorectal segments, we hypothesized that the proportion of colorectal carcinoma enriched with F. nucleatum might gradually increase along the bowel subsites from rectum to cecum. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 1,102 colon and rectal carcinomas in molecular pathological epidemiology databases of the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study...
November 3, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Wei Liu, Jimmy W Crott, Lin Lyu, Anna C Pfalzer, Jinchao Li, Sang-Woon Choi, Yingke Yang, Joel B Mason, Zhenhua Liu
Obesity is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Our previous study indicated that obesity increases activity of the pro-tumorigenic Wnt-signaling. Presently, we sought to further advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which obesity promotes CRC by examining associations between microbiome, inflammation and Wnt-signaling in Apc(+/1638N) mice whose obesity was induced by one of two modalities, diet- or genetically-induced obesity. Three groups were employed: Apc(+/1638N)Lepr(+/+) fed a low fat diet (10% fat), Apc(+/1638N)Lepr(+/+) fed a high fat diet (60% fat, diet-induced obesity), and Apc(+/1638N)Lepr(db/db) fed a low fat diet (genetically-induced obesity)...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Kosuke Mima, Yasutaka Sukawa, Reiko Nishihara, Zhi Rong Qian, Mai Yamauchi, Kentaro Inamura, Sun A Kim, Atsuhiro Masuda, Jonathan A Nowak, Katsuhiko Nosho, Aleksandar D Kostic, Marios Giannakis, Hideo Watanabe, Susan Bullman, Danny A Milner, Curtis C Harris, Edward Giovannucci, Levi A Garraway, Gordon J Freeman, Glenn Dranoff, Andrew T Chan, Wendy S Garrett, Curtis Huttenhower, Charles S Fuchs, Shuji Ogino
IMPORTANCE: Evidence indicates a complex link between gut microbiome, immunity, and intestinal tumorigenesis. To target the microbiota and immunity for colorectal cancer prevention and therapy, a better understanding of the relationship between microorganisms and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment is needed. Experimental evidence suggests that Fusobacterium nucleatum may promote colonic neoplasia development by downregulating antitumor T cell-mediated adaptive immunity. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a greater amount of F nucleatum in colorectal carcinoma tissue is associated with a lower density of T cells in tumor tissue...
August 2015: JAMA Oncology
Yan Zhang, Fuzheng Zhao, Yongfeng Deng, Yanping Zhao, Hongqiang Ren
Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water have been linked to various diseases, including colon, colorectal, rectal, and bladder cancer. Trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) is an emerging nitrogenous DBP, and our previous study found that TCAcAm could induce some changes associated with host-gut microbiota co-metabolism. In this study, we used an integrated approach combining metagenomics, based on high-throughput sequencing, and metabolomics, based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), to evaluate the toxic effects of TCAcAm exposure on the gut microbiome and urine metabolome...
April 3, 2015: Journal of Proteome Research
Sajin Bae, Cornelia M Ulrich, Marian L Neuhouser, Olga Malysheva, Lynn B Bailey, Liren Xiao, Elissa C Brown, Kara L Cushing-Haugen, Yingye Zheng, Ting-Yuan David Cheng, Joshua W Miller, Ralph Green, Dorothy S Lane, Shirley A A Beresford, Marie A Caudill
Few studies have examined associations between plasma choline metabolites and risk of colorectal cancer. Therefore, we investigated associations between plasma biomarkers of choline metabolism [choline, betaine, dimethylglycine, and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)] and colorectal cancer risk among postmenopausal women in a case-control study nested within the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. We selected 835 matched case-control pairs, and cases were further stratified by tumor site (proximal, distal, or rectal) and stage (local/regional or metastatic)...
December 15, 2014: Cancer Research
Patricia A Thompson
High red meat consumption is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. Various mechanisms have been proposed, including mutagenesis, alterations of the gut microbiome, and effects on local immunity and inflammation. This lack of well-defined mechanistic explanations for diet and cancer associations coupled with our inability to derive causal inferences from population-based studies allows us to rationalize that burger we ate at lunch or that steak we ate at dinner. The preparation and consumption of red meat is a major social and dining pleasure in the Western culture, so there is resistance to concern ourselves with the cancer risk associated with red meat...
August 2014: Cancer Prevention Research
Joel Faintuch, Silvia Y Hayashi, Sergio C Nahas, Osmar K Yagi, Salomao Faintuch, Ivan Cecconello
BACKGROUND: A clinical study was designed that aimed to analyze whether resection of the large bowel in cancer patients might benefit diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This prospective case-control study included retrospective information. Patients (n = 247) included diabetic and euglycemic groups with colorectal cancer operations (n = 60), cancer gastrectomy (n = 72), exclusive chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer (n = 46), and noncancer clinical controls (n = 69). Follow-up periods were, respectively, 79...
March 2014: Surgical Endoscopy
Mai Yamauchi, Teppei Morikawa, Aya Kuchiba, Yu Imamura, Zhi Rong Qian, Reiko Nishihara, Xiaoyun Liao, Levi Waldron, Yujin Hoshida, Curtis Huttenhower, Andrew T Chan, Edward Giovannucci, Charles Fuchs, Shuji Ogino
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer is typically classified into proximal colon, distal colon and rectal cancer. Tumour genetic and epigenetic features differ by tumour location. Considering a possible role of bowel contents (including microbiome) in carcinogenesis, this study hypothesised that tumour molecular features might gradually change along bowel subsites, rather than change abruptly at splenic flexure. DESIGN: Utilising 1443 colorectal cancers in two US nationwide prospective cohort studies, the frequencies of molecular features (CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), microsatellite instability (MSI), LINE-1 methylation and BRAF, KRAS and PIK3CA mutations) were examined along bowel subsites (rectum, rectosigmoid junction, sigmoid, descending colon, splenic flexure, transverse colon, hepatic flexure, ascending colon and caecum)...
June 2012: Gut
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