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Cannabinoid movement disorder

José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Antônio W Zuardi, Francisco S Guimarães, Vitor Tumas, Rafael G Dos Santos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rest tremor, postural disturbances, and rigidity. PD is also characterized by non-motor symptoms such as sleep disturbances, cognitive deficits, and psychiatric disorders such as psychosis, depression, and anxiety. The pharmacological treatment for these symptoms is limited in efficacy and induce significant adverse reactions, highlighting the need for better treatment options. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid devoid of the euphoriant and cognitive effects of tetrahydrocannabinol, and preclinical and preliminary clinical studies suggest that this compound has therapeutic effect in non-motor symptoms of PD...
January 31, 2019: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Ann E Klega, Jennifer Tickal Keehbauch
Approximately 10% of the U.S. population 12 years and older reported using illicit substances in 2015. This article reviews the clinical effects and treatment of persons who use cocaine, methamphetamines, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), synthetic cannabinoids, and synthetic cathinones ("bath salts"). Cocaine blocks the reuptake of the monoamine transporters dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Immediate clinical effects include increased energy and euphoria, as well as hypertension and arrhythmias...
July 15, 2018: American Family Physician
Mariam Alaverdashvili, Robert B Laprairie
Allosteric modulation of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) holds great therapeutic potential. This is because allosteric modulators do not possess intrinsic efficacy, but instead augment (positive allosteric modulation) or diminish (negative allosteric modulation) the receptor's response to endogenous ligand. Consequently, CB1R allosteric modulators have an effect ceiling which allows for the tempering of CB1R signaling without the desensitization, tolerance, dependence, and psychoactivity associated with orthosteric compounds...
February 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Keane Lim, Yuen Mei See, Jimmy Lee
The discovery of endocannabinoid's role within the central nervous system and its potential therapeutic benefits have brought forth rising interest in the use of cannabis for medical purposes. The present review aimed to synthesize and evaluate the available evidences on the efficacy of cannabis and its derivatives for psychiatric, neurodegenerative and movement disorders. A systematic search of randomized controlled trials of cannabis and its derivatives were conducted via databases (PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials)...
November 30, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Andrea Sancesario, Roberta Morace, Diego Centonze, Ennio Iezzi
The endocannabinoid system plays a regulatory role in a number of physiological processes and has been found altered in different pathological conditions, including movement disorders. The interactions between cannabinoids and dopamine in the basal ganglia are remarkably complex and involve both the modulation of other neurotransmitters (γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, opioids, peptides) and the activation of different receptors subtypes (cannabinoid receptor type 1 and 2). In the last years, experimental studies contributed to enrich this scenario reporting interactions between cannabinoids and other receptor systems (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 cation channel, adenosine receptors, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors)...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Martin F J Perescis, Natasja de Bruin, Liesbeth Heijink, Chris Kruse, Lyudmila Vinogradova, Annika Lüttjohann, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Clementina M van Rijn
Cannabinoid CB1 antagonists have been investigated for possible treatment of e.g. obesity-related disorders. However, clinical application was halted due to their symptoms of anxiety and depression. In addition to these adverse effects, we have shown earlier that chronic treatment with the CB1 antagonist rimonabant may induce EEG-confirmed convulsive seizures. In a regulatory repeat-dose toxicity study violent episodes of "muscle spasms" were observed in Wistar rats, daily dosed with the CB1 receptor antagonist SLV326 during 5 months...
2017: PloS One
P Medeiros, R L de Freitas, M O Silva, N C Coimbra, L Melo-Thomas
The inferior colliculus (IC), a midbrain structure that processes acoustic information of aversive nature, is distinguished from other auditory nuclei in the brainstem by its connections with structures of the motor system. Previous evidence relating the IC to motor behavior shows that glutamatergic and GABAergic mechanisms in the IC exert influence on systemic haloperidol-induced catalepsy. There is substantial evidence supporting a role played by the endocannabinoid system as a modulator of the glutamatergic neurotransmission, as well as the dopaminergic activity in the basal nuclei and therefore it may be considered as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of movement disorders...
November 19, 2016: Neuroscience
Farideh A Javid, Roger M Phillips, S Afshinjavid, Roberta Verde, Alessia Ligresti
Cannabinoids have been used for many centuries to ease pain and in the past decade, the endocannabinoid system has been implicated in a number of pathophysiological conditions, such as mood and anxiety disorders, movement disorders such as Parkinson's and Huntington's disease, neuropathic pain, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension, glaucoma, obesity, and osteoporosis. Several studies have demonstrated that cannabinoids also have anti-cancer activity and as cannabinoids are usually well tolerated and do not produce the typical toxic effects of conventional chemotherapies, there is considerable merit in the development of cannabinoids as potential anticancer therapies...
March 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Alfonso Fasano, Günther Deuschl
Although tremor is a highly prevalent movement disorder, progress in this field is limited because of the poor understanding of many of the underlying conditions. This review summarizes recent treatment attempts since 2013. For essential tremor, recent innovations are phase I or II studies of Octanol, several clinically relevant refinements for deep brain stimulation, and the development of the new magnetic resonance imaging guided focused ultrasound technique. Further new invasive and noninvasive electrical and magnetic stimulation techniques have been tested for essential tremor and parkinsonian tremor...
September 15, 2015: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Barbara S Koppel
Cannabis has been used for many medicinal purposes, including management of spasms, dystonia, and dyskinesias, with variable success. Its use for tetanus was described in the second century BCE, but the literature continues to include more case reports and surveys of its beneficial effects in managing symptoms of hyperkinetic movement disorders than randomized controlled trials, making evidence-based recommendations difficult. This paper reviews clinical research using various formulations of cannabis (botanical products, oral preparations containing ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and/or cannabidiol) and currently available preparations in the USA (nabilone and dronabinol)...
October 2015: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Briony Catlow, Juan Sanchez-Ramos
Use of cannabinoids as medications has a long history. Unfortunately, the prohibition of cannabis and its classification in 1970 as a schedule 1 drug has been a major obstacle in studying these agents in a systematic, controlled manner. The number of class 1 studies (randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled) in patients with movement disorders is limited. Hence, it is not possible to make recommendations on the use of these cannabinoids as primary treatments for any of the movement disorders at this time...
September 2015: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Shokouh Arjmand, Zohreh Vaziri, Mina Behzadi, Hassan Abbassian, Gary J Stephens, Mohammad Shabani
Tremor arises from an involuntary, rhythmic muscle contraction/relaxation cycle and is a common disabling symptom of many motor-related diseases such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, Huntington disease, and forms of ataxia. In the wake of anecdotal, largely uncontrolled, observations claiming the amelioration of some symptoms among cannabis smokers, and the high density of cannabinoid receptors in the areas responsible for motor function, including basal ganglia and cerebellum, many researchers have pursued the question of whether cannabinoid-based compounds could be used therapeutically to alleviate tremor associated with central nervous system diseases...
October 2015: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Suzanne Bell, Corey Nida
This review summarizes the literature to date relating to pyrolysis and heated vapour ingestion of drugs of abuse. In this context, heating is referred to as smoking or pyrolysis, but these are generic descriptors that encompass numerous methods of vapour generation and inhalation. Depending on the amount of drug used, diluents and contaminants present, heating conditions, and the oxidative/reductive environment, many thermal decomposition products can be formed. In addition to the recognized hazard of rapid onset of pharmacological effects of the parent drug, thermal decomposition products may be pharmacologically active as well as acutely/chronically toxic...
June 2015: Drug Testing and Analysis
Benzi Kluger, Piera Triolo, Wallace Jones, Joseph Jankovic
There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and, particularly, for neurological conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science as well as preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders...
March 2015: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Chiara Ceci, Martina Proietti Onori, Simone Macrì, Giovanni Laviola
More than 10 % of children during school years suffer from a transient tic disorder, and 1 % has a particular type of tic disorder known as Tourette syndrome. At present, there is no available treatment that can improve tics without considerable side effects. Recent evidence indicates that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive component of cannabis, reduced in mice the head twitch responses, a tic pharmacologically induced by the selective serotonin 5-HT2 receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)...
April 2015: Neurotoxicity Research
A A Martinez, M G Morgese, A Pisanu, T Macheda, M A Paquette, A Seillier, T Cassano, A R Carta, A Giuffrida
Long-term administration of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa), the mainstay treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), is accompanied by fluctuations in its duration of action and motor complications (dyskinesia) that dramatically affect the quality of life of patients. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) can be modeled in rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesions via chronic administration of levodopa, which causes increasingly severe axial, limb, and orofacial abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) over time. In previous studies, we showed that the direct activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors alleviated rat AIMs...
February 2015: Neurobiology of Disease
Marcel Pérez-Morales, Alfonso Fajardo-Valdez, Mónica Méndez-Díaz, Alejandra E Ruiz-Contreras, Oscar Prospéro-García
We have previously reported that maternal separation (MS) for 3 h daily during the first two postnatal weeks increases wakefulness, whereas it reduces sleep in rats. Oleamide, an agonist of the cannabinoid receptor type 1, increases sleep in MS rats to such a level that we cannot differentiate their sleep patterns from those of their non-MS (NMS) siblings. However, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), an endocannabinoid, infused into the lateral hypothalamus of NMS rats at the beginning of the dark phase of the cycle increases rapid eye movement sleep and the expression of c-Fos on the rapid eye movement sleep promoting melanin-concentrating hormone neurons...
December 17, 2014: Neuroreport
Susanna Pietropaolo, Luigi Bellocchio, Andrea Ruiz-Calvo, Magali Cabanas, Zhuowei Du, Manuel Guzmán, Maurice Garret, Yoon H Cho
Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive decline in motor abilities, as well as in cognitive and social behaviors. Most of these behavioral deficits are recapitulated in the R6/1 transgenic mouse, which can therefore be used as an experimental model to identify the neurobiological substrates of HD pathology and to design novel therapeutic approaches. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a relevant candidate to participate in the etiopathology of HD as it is a key modulator of brain function, especially in areas primarily affected by HD dysfunction such as the striatum...
February 2015: Neuropharmacology
Flaubert Tchantchou, Laura B Tucker, Amanda H Fu, Rebecca J Bluett, Joseph T McCabe, Sachin Patel, Yumin Zhang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death in young adults in the United States, but there is still no effective agent for treatment. N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) is a major endocannabinoid in the brain. Its increase after brain injury is believed to be protective. However, the compensatory role of AEA is transient due to its rapid hydrolysis by the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Thus, inhibition of FAAH can boost the endogenous levels of AEA and prolong its protective effect...
October 2014: Neuropharmacology
Melissa D Barry, Laura J Boddington, Kajsa M Igelström, Jason P Gray, Jon Shemmell, Kuei Y Tseng, Dorothy E Oorschot, John N J Reynolds
Following a cerebral cortex injury such as stroke, excessive inhibition around the core of the injury is thought to reduce the potential for new motor learning. In part, this may be caused by an imbalance of interhemispheric inhibition (IHI); therefore, treatments that relieve the inhibitory drive from the healthy hemisphere to the peri-lesional area may enhance motor recovery. Theta burst stimulation delivered by transcranial magnetic stimulation has been tested as a means of normalizing IHI, but clinical results have been variable...
November 2014: Experimental Neurology
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