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Osteoblast Molecular mechanisms

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770859/aberrant-wnt-signaling-in-multiple-myeloma-molecular-mechanisms-and-targeting-options
#1
REVIEW
Harmen van Andel, Kinga A Kocemba, Marcel Spaargaren, Steven T Pals
Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a central role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of malignancies and is typically caused by mutations in core Wnt pathway components driving constitutive, ligand-independent signaling. In multiple myelomas (MMs), however, these pathway intrinsic mutations are rare despite the fact that most tumors display aberrant Wnt pathway activity. Recent studies indicate that this activation is caused by genetic and epigenetic lesions of Wnt regulatory components, sensitizing MM cells to autocrine Wnt ligands and paracrine Wnts emanating from the bone marrow niche...
February 15, 2019: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767867/il-35-prevent-bone-loss-through-promotion-of-bone-formation-and-angiogenesis-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Siyan Liu, Yuxuan Li, Liping Xia, Hui Shen, Jing Lu
OBJECTIVES: Angiogenesis in bone and osteogenesis appear to be closely linked, suggesting the existence of molecular crosstalk between pro-angiogenic molecules and osteoblasts. The pro-angiogenic molecules vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with its receptors Flt-1, Flk-1 and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 play a crucial role in born formation, an early and critical event in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interleukin (IL)-35 is demonstrated to be an anti-inflammatory cytokine in RA...
February 11, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761524/highly-expressed-p2x7-receptor-promotes-growth-and-metastasis-of-human-hos-mnng-osteosarcoma-cells-via-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-and-mtor-hif1%C3%AE-vegf-signaling
#3
Yingchi Zhang, Hao Cheng, Wenkai Li, Hua Wu, Yong Yang
The P2X7 receptor, an ATP-gated ion channel, is critical for cancer cell growth, invasiveness, and angiogenesis. Previous studies indicate that P2X7 regulates osteoblast proliferation and osteodeposition and that high P2X7 expression has a pro-growth effect in osteosarcoma. However, how it functions in osteosarcoma cell growth and metastasis is not clear. Thus, we elucidated molecular mechanisms of P2X7-dependent positive regulation of osteosarcoma cell proliferation, invasion, migration, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and angiogenesis using in vitro and in vivo models...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755277/atypical-antipsychotics-induce-human-osteoblasts-apoptosis-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#4
Peifan Li, Yiming Wang, Xingde Liu, Zhen Zhou, Jun Wang, Haiyan Zhou, Lei Zheng, Lixia Yang
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that atypical antipsychotics (APs) increase risk of osteoporosis in schizophrenia patients, however the mechanism is unclear. The aim of the study was to explore the molecular mechanisms about Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway underlying the osteal side effects of APs. METHODS: We cultured human osteoblast cell line hFob1. 19 (OB) treatments with olanzapine, risperidone, amisulpride, aripiprazole or resveratrol in vitro. OB cells viability was detected by cell viability assay...
February 12, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744180/beta-cryptoxanthin-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-osteoclast-differentiation-and-bone-resorption-via-the-suppression-of-inhibitor-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-kinase-activity
#5
Narumi Hirata, Ryota Ichimaru, Tsukasa Tominari, Chiho Matsumoto, Kenta Watanabe, Keita Taniguchi, Michiko Hirata, Sihui Ma, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Florian M W Grundler, Chisato Miyaura, Masaki Inada
Beta-cryptoxanthin (β-cry) is a typical carotenoid found abundantly in fruit and vegetables such as the Japanese mandarin orange, persimmon, papaya, paprika, and carrot, and exerts various biological activities (e.g., antioxidant effects). We previously reported that β-cry suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) E₂ production in gingival fibroblasts and restored the alveolar bone loss in a mouse model for periodontitis in vivo. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of β-cry on osteoclast differentiation...
February 10, 2019: Nutrients
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30736365/the-role-of-osteoprotegerin-and-its-ligands-in-vascular-function
#6
REVIEW
Luc Rochette, Alexandre Meloux, Eve Rigal, Marianne Zeller, Yves Cottin, Catherine Vergely
The superfamily of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors includes osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligands, which are receptor activators of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). The OPG/RANKL/RANK system plays an active role in pathological angiogenesis and inflammation as well as cell survival. It has been demonstrated that there is crosstalk between endothelial cells and osteoblasts during osteogenesis, thus establishing a connection between angiogenesis and osteogenesis...
February 6, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735116/effects-of-eclipta-prostrata-on-gut-microbiota-of-samp6-mice-with-osteoporosis
#7
Xin Zhao, Juqing Ai, Haoping Mao, Xiumei Gao
PURPOSE: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been extensively studied for its preventive and treatment properties toward osteoporosis (OP). Pharmacological studies have shown that TCM Eclipta prostrata induce anti-OP effects. Considering the growing evidence demonstrating that gut microbiota (GM) is related to OP, we aimed to study the GM-dependent function and mechanism of E. prostrata for preventing OP in mice. METHODOLOGY: Bone micro-structure was obtained using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and bone-relating factors were detected by molecular biological test...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733647/a-simple-and-reliable-protocol-for-long-term-culture-of-murine-bone-marrow-stromal-mesenchymal-stem-cells-that-retained-their-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-stemness-in-long-term-culture
#8
Basem M Abdallah, Abdullah M Alzahrani, Ashraf M Abdel-Moneim, Nicholas Ditzel, Moustapha Kassem
Background: Bone marrow derived stromal stem cells (BMSCs) are a clonogenic cell population that is characterized by self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential into osteoblasts, and other mesenchymal cell types. Mouse BMSCs (mBMSCs) are difficult to be cultured and propagated in vitro due to their replicative senescent phenotype, heterogeneity and high contamination with plastic adherent hematopoietic progenitors (HPCs). In this study, we described long-term culture of homogenous population of mBMSCs using simple and highly reproducible approach based on frequent subculturing (FS) at fixed split ratio in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)...
2019: Biological Procedures Online
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712070/genetic-disruption-of-anoctamin-5-in-mice-replicates-human-gnathodiaphyseal-dysplasia-gdd
#9
Xiaoyu Wang, Xiu Liu, Rui Dong, Chao Liang, Ernst J Reichenberger, Ying Hu
Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (GDD; OMIM#166260) is a rare skeletal disorder which is mainly characterized by cemento-osseous lesions in mandibles, bone fragility, bowing and diaphyseal sclerosis of tubular bones. GDD is caused by point mutations in Anoctamin-5 (ANO5); however, the disease mechanisms remain unclear. Here we generated Ano5-knockout (KO) mice using a CRISPR/Cas 9 approach to study loss of function aspects of GDD mutations. Homozygous Ano5 knockout mice (Ano5-/- ) replicate some typical traits of human GDD including massive jawbones, bowing tibia, sclerosis and cortical thickening of femoral and tibial diaphyses...
February 2, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30701530/restoration-of-microrna-30b-expression-alleviates-vascular-calcification-through-the-mtor-signaling-pathway-and-autophagy
#10
Tian-Hua Xu, Xiao-Bo Qiu, Zi-Tong Sheng, Yi-Ran Han, Jian Wang, Bin-Yao Tian, Li Yao
Pathological calcification represents an event that consequently leads to a distinct elevation in the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in addition to strengthening its correlation with hyperphosphatemia. Epigenomic regulation by specific microRNAs (miRNAs) is reported to be involved in ectopic calcification. However, the finer molecular mechanisms governing this event remain unclear. Hence, this study aimed to identify the potential miRNAs involved in vascular calcification (VC) development and progression...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700820/identification-of-key-signaling-pathways-orchestrating-substrate-topography-directed-osteogenic-differentiation-through-high-throughput-sirna-screening
#11
Tugba Ozdemir, Daniel T Bowers, Xiang Zhan, Debashis Ghosh, Justin L Brown
Fibrous scaffolds are used for bone tissue engineering purposes with great success across a variety of polymers with different physical and chemical properties. It is now evident that the correct degree of curvature promotes increased cytoskeletal tension on osteoprogenitors leading to osteogenic differentiation. However, the mechanotransductive pathways involved in this phenomenon are not fully understood. To achieve a reproducible and specific cellular response, an increased mechanistic understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving the fibrous scaffold mediated bone regeneration must be understood...
January 30, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30700724/regulation-of-osteogenesis-and-osteoclastogenesis-by-zoledronic-acid-loaded-on-biodegradable-magnesium-strontium-alloy
#12
Mei Li, Peng Wan, Weidan Wang, Ke Yang, Yu Zhang, Yong Han
Inhibiting osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors to reduce bone resorption is an important strategy to treat osteoclast-related diseases, such as peri-prosthetic osteolysis. In this study, our objective was to study the role of zoledronic acid (ZA), as a highly potent and nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, in promoting osteogenesis and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis properties of magnesium (Mg)-based implants. ZA was chemically associated with calcium phosphate (CaP) deposited on magnesium-strontium (Mg-Sr) alloy, which was confirmed by the morphological observation, phase composition and drug releasing via SEM, XRD spectrum and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), respectively...
January 30, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698946/3d-printing-of-biodegradable-piperazine-based-polyurethane-urea-scaffolds-with-enhanced-osteogenesis-for-bone-regeneration
#13
Yufei Ma, Nan Hu, Juan Liu, Xinyun Zhai, Mingming Wu, Chengshen Hu, Long Li, Yuxiao Lai, Haobo Pan, William W Lu, Xinzhou Zhang, Yanfeng Luo, Changshun Ruan
Synthetic biodegradable polymeric scaffolds with uniformly interconnected pore structure, appropriate mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and even enhanced osteogenesis ability are urgently required for in situ bone regeneration. In this study, for the first time, a series of biodegradable piperazine (PP)-based polyurethane-urea (P-PUU) scaffolds with a gradient of PP contents were developed by air-driven extrusion 3D printing technology. The P-PUU ink of 60 wt% concentration was demonstrated to own an appropriate viscosity for scaffold fabrication...
January 30, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696596/is-vitamin-d-deficiency-behind-the-scenes-for-high-incidence-of-giant-cell-tumor-amongst-the-indian-population-unraveling-the-vitamin-d-rankl-association
#14
Manit K Gundavda, Manish G Agarwal, Rajeev Reddy, Yash Wagh, Vinayak Ghanate
INTRODUCTION: The major neoplastic and proliferative component of GCTB is the stromal tumor cells; that they have shown no evidence of bone destruction, instead the massive tissue destruction appears to be a result of tumor induced osteoclastogenesis. The discovery of receptor activator of nuclear factor kB (RANK) and RANK binding ligand (RANKL) uncovered the bone homeostasis and molecular mechanism by which multiple compounds (including vitamin D) regulated osteoclast differentiation; a function mediated by osteoblastic cells and osteoclast-precursor cells...
February 2019: Medical Hypotheses
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30693516/iron-overload-threatens-the-growth-of-osteoblast-cells-via-inhibiting-the-pi3k-akt-foxo3a-dusp14-signaling-pathway
#15
Demeng Xia, Jianghong Wu, Malcolm Xing, Yang Wang, Hongyue Zhang, Yan Xia, Panyu Zhou, Shuogui Xu
Iron overload is a common stress in the development of cells. Growing evidence has indicated that iron overload is associated with osteoporosis. Therefore, enhancing the understanding of iron overload would benefit the development of novel approaches to the treatment of osteoporosis. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of iron overload on osteoblast cells, via the MC3T3-E1 cell line, and to explore its possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) was utilized to simulate iron overload conditions in vitro...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30678306/integrative-analyses-of-genes-associated-with-subcutaneous-insulin-resistance
#16
Manoj Kumar Pujar, Basavaraj Vastrad, Chanabasayya Vastrad
: Insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and obesity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the key genes and potential molecular mechanism in insulin resistance. Expression profiles of the genes were extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses were conducted at Enrichr. The protein⁻protein interaction (PPI) network was settled and analyzed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) database constructed by Cytoscape software...
January 22, 2019: Biomolecules
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670092/catalpol-promotes-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#17
Yu Zhu, Yanmao Wang, Yachao Jia, Jia Xu, Yimin Chai
BACKGROUND: Rehmanniae Radix is a traditional herbal medicine in East Asia that has been widely used to treat patients with osteoporosis. However, the effect of catalpol, the primary active principle component of Rehmanniae Radix, on the function of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with its activity remain poorly understood. METHODS: The effect of catalpol on the proliferation of BMSCs was evaluated using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay...
January 22, 2019: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668150/the-perk-eif2%C3%AE-atf4-signaling-branch-regulates-osteoblast-differentiation-and-proliferation-by-pth
#18
Kefan Zhang, Miaomiao Wang, Yingjiang Li, Chunping Li, Shaidi Tang, Xiuxia Qu, Ninghan Feng, Yu Wu
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and its related peptide (PTH related peptide 1-34) are one of FDA-approved bone-promoting drugs for age-related osteoporosis. Treatment with PTH stimulates bone formation. But the molecular mechanisms of PTH-mediated osteoblast differentiation and cell proliferation are still not completely understood. In this study, we showed that PTH induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in osteoblasts through the PERK-EIF2α-ATF4-signaling pathway. After separately blocking PERK-EIF2α-ATF4 signaling with two different inhibitors (AMG'44 and ISRIB), or specific small interfering RNA for PERK and ATF4, the following targets were all downregulated: expression of osteoblast differentiation markers (Runx2, Alp, Col1a1 and Ocn), cell proliferation markers (CyclinE, CyclinD and CDC2), amino acid import (Glyt1) and metabolism-related genes (Asns)...
January 22, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30659979/defective-circadian-control-in-mesenchymal-cells-reduces-adult-bone-mass-in-mice-by-promoting-osteoclast-function
#19
Kelly Tsang, Haoming Liu, Yen Yang, Julia F Charles, Joerg Ermann
Serum bone turnover markers show diurnal variation in humans, suggesting that circadian rhythms contribute to normal bone physiology. This conclusion is corroborated by bone phenotypes in mice with genetic disruption of the circadian molecular clock mechanism, for instance via deletion of the transcription factor Brain and Muscle Arntl-like 1 (Bmal1). To dissect the contribution of circadian molecular clocks in individual bone cell types, we generated mice with conditional deletion of Bmal1 in osteoclasts (Ctsk-cre) and in mesenchymal cells of the limbs (Prx1-cre)...
January 16, 2019: Bone
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30654447/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-mediated-by-recprp-c-involved-in-the-neuronal-differentiation-process-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
Stefano Martellucci, Costantino Santacroce, Francesca Santilli, Luca Piccoli, Simona Delle Monache, Adriano Angelucci, Roberta Misasi, Maurizio Sorice, Vincenzo Mattei
Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSCs) represent a type of adult mesenchymal stem cells that have the ability to differentiate in vitro in several lineages such as odontoblasts, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes and neurons. In the current work, we used hDPSCs as the experimental model to study the role of recombinant prion protein 23⁻231 (recPrPC ) in the neuronal differentiation process, and in the signal pathway activation of ERK 1/2 and Akt. We demonstrated that recPrPC was able to activate an intracellular signal pathway mediated by extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt)...
January 16, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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