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Claire Bethune, William Egner, Tomaz Garcez, Aarnoud Huissoon, Stephen Jolles, Yousuf Karim, Rashmi Jain, Sinisa Savic, Kate Kelley, Dorothea Grosse-Kreul, Sofia Grigoriadou
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) represents a heterogeneous group of rare disorders. There is considerable morbidity and mortality as a result of non-infectious complications and this presents clinicians with management challenges. Clinical guidelines to support the management of CVID are urgently required. The UK Primary Immunodeficiency Network and the British Society for Immunology funded a joint project, to address this. A modified Delphi Survey was conducted for the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of the non-infectious blood, respiratory, gut and liver complications of CVID...
February 6, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Seong Hyuk Park, Seok-Chan Eun, Sung Tack Kwon
Hand transplantation is the most common form of modern composite tissue allotransplantation, with 89 cases reported worldwide since 1998. The procedure is a treatment option for complex injuries that leave patients with structural, functional, and aesthetic deficits that cannot be addressed by other means. Successful application of this technology requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating not only skilled hand surgeons, transplant surgeons, and transplant immunologists, but also hand therapists, psychiatrists, medical specialists, anesthesiologists, and so on...
February 2019: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Elopy Sibanda, Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche
The 10th Federation of African Immunological Societies (FAIS) Congress, held in Tunisia in November 2017, marked a significant scientific milestone. It enabled scientists from across the continent to promote immunology research and to showcase major achievements made by immunologists throughout Africa. This issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology (JLB) features manuscripts from the FAIS Congress. As noted in these papers, research in infectious diseases remains the focus of the African immunology community; however, increasingly noncommunicable diseases-such as autoimmunity, allergy, primary immunodeficiency, cancer and transplantation immunology-are also an emerging priority...
February 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Hagen Ott
Neonatal and infantile erythroderma (NIE) represent the common clinical phenotype of heterogenous diseases ranging from benign and transient skin conditions to fatal multiorgan disorders. NIE regularly demands a comprehensive diagnostic workup in a multiprofessional setting, especially if newborns and young infants with the disease develop a failure to thrive and concomitant infectious, neurological or metabolic complications. By obtaining a detailed medical history and performing a thorough clinical examination, targeted diagnostic steps can be scheduled for most affected children...
January 31, 2019: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Murilo Delgobo, Stefan Frantz
The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors have greatly improved clinical outcomes in several cancer types, revolutionizing the management of a wide variety of tumors endowed with poor prognosis. Despite its success, high grade immune related adverse events were observed in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors. While cardiotoxicity was largely underestimated in initial studies, numerous reports of fulminant myocarditis and fatal heart failure (HF) have been recently described. In this review we discuss possible mechanisms involved in cardiac toxicity triggered by inhibition of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) pathway, the most prominent checkpoint inhibitors available in the clinic...
December 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Maxine Zylberberg
The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to the study of whole genomes and transcriptomes is becoming commonplace in molecular biology and molecular medicine. Over the past decade, these technologies have become more accessible to the broader biological community as the cost of NGS has decreased significantly and the availability of ready-to-use library preparation kits and user-friendly bioinformatic tools has increased. Indeed, these technologies are starting to be deployed in the study of ecological systems and immune function and have already yielded new discoveries and insights...
March 2019: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Shi Yong Neo, Aine O'Reilly, Yago Pico de Coaña
The irruption of immune-activating therapies to treat cancer has created a need for evaluating both the response and possible adverse events related to these novel treatments. Multicolor flow cytometry is a powerful tool that enables tumor immunologists to characterize the immune system of patients before and in response to immunotherapy. We present here a protocol for purifying human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and staining them with a set of six multicolor panels that allow for a thorough characterization of the immune system of healthy donors as well as patients that are undergoing treatments that may modify the immune system...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Edoardo Galli, Ekaterina Friebel, Florian Ingelfinger, Susanne Unger, Nicolás Gonzalo Núñez, Burkhard Becher
High-dimensional single-cell (HDcyto) technologies, such as mass cytometry (CyTOF) and flow cytometry, are the key techniques that hold a great promise for deciphering complex biological processes. During the last decade, we witnessed an exponential increase of novel HDcyto technologies that are able to deliver an in-depth profiling in different settings, such as various autoimmune diseases and cancer. The concurrent advance of custom data-mining algorithms has provided a rich substrate for the development of novel tools in translational medicine research...
January 17, 2019: European Journal of Immunology
Iosune Baraibar, Ignacio Melero, Mariano Ponz-Sarvise, Eduardo Castanon
Immunotherapy has emerged in recent years and has revolutionized the treatment of cancer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) agents, are the first of this new generation of treatments. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents target immune cells by blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. This blockade leads to enhancement of the immune system and therefore restores the tumour-induced immune deficiency selectively in the tumour microenvironment...
January 16, 2019: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Marcello Tonelli, Natasha Wiebe, Braden J Manns, Scott W Klarenbach, Matthew T James, Pietro Ravani, Neesh Pannu, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Brenda R Hemmelgarn
Importance: Clinical experience suggests that there are substantial differences in patient complexity across medical specialties, but empirical data are lacking. Objective: To compare the complexity of patients seen by different types of physician in a universal health care system. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based retrospective cohort study of 2 597 127 residents of the Canadian province of Alberta aged 18 years and older with at least 1 physician visit between April 1, 2014 and March 31, 2015...
November 2, 2018: JAMA network open
B Bader-Meunier, C Gitiaux, A Belot, K Brochard, R Mouy, D Ponce, V Bughin, F Jouen, L Musset, Y Allenbach, E Hachulla, H Maillard, A Meyer, E Bourrat, O Benveniste
A guideline group consisting of a pediatric rheumatologist, internists, rheumatologists, immunologists, a physiotherapist and a patient expert elaborated guidelines related to the management of juvenile dermatomyositis on behalf of the rare autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases network FAI2 R. A systematic search of the literature published between 2000 and 2015 and indexed in PubMed was undertaken. Here, we present the expert opinion for diagnosis and treatment in juvenile dermatomyositis.
January 9, 2019: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Lyle R McKinnon, Sharon Achilles, Catriona S Bradshaw, Adam Burgener, Tania Crucitti, David N Fredricks, Heather B Jaspan, Rupert Kaul, Charu Kaushic, Nichole Klatt, Douglas S Kwon, Jeanne M Marrazzo, Lindi Masson, Scott McClelland, Jacques Ravel, Janneke H H M van de Wijgert, Lenka A Vodstrcil, Gilda Tachedjian
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common yet poorly understood vaginal condition that has become a major focus of HIV transmission and immunology research. Varied terminologies are used by clinicians and researchers to describe microbial communities that reside in the female reproductive tract, which is driven in part by microbial genetic and metabolic complexity, evolving diagnostic and molecular techniques, and multidisciplinary perspectives of clinicians, epidemiologists, microbiologists, and immunologists who all appreciate the scientific importance of understanding mechanisms that underlie "BV"...
January 14, 2019: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Michel Obeid
The immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have radically changed the treatment and the prognostic of certain types of cancer. This reprogramming of the immune system can sometimes lead to immuno-related adverse events (irAEs) involving, depending on the immunotherapy used, multiple organ (s) with different severity, frequency and chronology. In theory all organs can be affected, often in a reversible and rapid manner if an immunosuppressive therapy is initiated in time. In contrast, endocrinopathies and some neuropathies are of long lasting and sometimes of irreversible nature...
January 9, 2019: Revue Médicale Suisse
Yumi Izutsu
Skin grafting in the amphibian Xenopus laevis has been used to detect not only allogeneic antigens that differ by minor H antigens or by one MHC haplotype, but also to detect ontogeny-specific antigens (including both emerging adult- and disappearing larval-specific) during metamorphosis. To understand the mechanisms underlying allogeneic tolerance or immune responses against larval- and/or adult-specific antigens, a complete MHC homozygous, inbred strain is the most appropriate experimental model. The inbred J strain established in Japan is used here...
January 3, 2019: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Sonali Wijetilleka, David R Jayne, Chetan Mukhtyar, Aftab Ala, Philip D Bright, Hector Chinoy, Lorraine Harper, Majid A Kazmi, Sorena Kiani-Alikhan, Charles K Li, Siraj A Misbah, Louise Oni, Fiona E Price-Kuehne, Alan D Salama, Sarita Workman, David Wrench, Mohammed Yousuf Karim
Objectives: The association of B cell targeted therapies with development of hypogammaglobulinaemia and infection is increasingly recognized. Our aim was to develop consensus recommendations for immunoglobulin replacement therapy for management of hypogammaglobulinaemia following B cell targeted therapies in autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Methods: A modified Delphi exercise involved a 17-member Taskforce committee, consisting of immunologists, rheumatologists, nephrologists, haematologists, a gastroenterologist, an immunology specialist nurse and a patient representative...
December 26, 2018: Rheumatology
Sang T Kim, Maria E Suarez-Almazor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Guillaume Voisinne, Anne Gonzalez de Peredo, Romain Roncagalli
T cells are critical components of adaptive immunity. As such, their activation is regulated by the T cell receptor (TCR) that constantly scan peptides associated with major histocompatibility complexes (MHC). TCR engagement initiates a series of molecular events leading to cytokine secretion, proliferation, and differentiation of T cells. As a second coincident event, activation of co-stimulatory molecules, such as CD28, synergize with the TCR in order to prolong and/or amplify intracellular signals. With the recent advances in immunotherapies targeting T cells, co-inhibitory receptors are of growing interest for immunologists due to their potential modulatory properties on T cell functions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Bradley E Chipps, Christina E Ciaccio, Karin Rosén, Tmirah Haselkorn, Ellen Zigmont, Thomas B Casale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Rebecca Ludwig, Jochen Huehn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Masayuki Hirano
The rapid advancement of next generation sequencing technology has resulted in accumulation of many datasets in cancer clinical and research laboratories, many of which do not have bioinformaticians. Xu and colleagues developed a user-friendly web-based tool to define the tumor immunophenotype among patients with cancer. By uploading user-defined datasets on the web, it can systematically track, analyze, and visualize the status of anticancer immune activity and the proportion of tumor-infiltrating immune cells...
December 1, 2018: Cancer Research
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