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Pronator teres

Nabiollah Bakhtiari, Iman Dianat, Moein Nedaei
The effects of five different handle shapes of masons' trowels on muscle activity of the arm and forearm muscles (through electromyographic [EMG] measurements of the biceps brachii [BB], flexor digitorum superficialis [FDS], pronator teres [PT] and extensor carpi ulnaris [ECU]) were evaluated in a simulated masonry task. The results showed a significant effect of handle shape on the muscle activity of the BB, PT and ECU. The muscle activity of the extensor (ECU) and flexor (FDS) were generally larger than those of the supinator (BB) and pronator (PT)...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Edie Benedito Caetano, Luiz Angelo Vieira, João José Sabongi Neto, Maurício Benedito Ferreira Caetano, Rodrigo Guerra Sabongi
Objective: The goal of this study was to describe anatomical variations and clinical implications of anterior interosseous nerve. In complete anterior interosseous nerve palsy, the patient is unable to flex the distal phalanx of the thumb and index finger; in incomplete anterior interosseous nerve palsy, there is less axonal damage, and either the thumb or the index finger are affected. Methods: This study was based on the dissection of 50 limbs of 25 cadavers, 22 were male and three, female...
September 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
Aurélie Sarcher, Sylvain Brochard, François Hug, Guy Letellier, Maxime Raison, Brigitte Perrouin-Verbe, Morgan Sangeux, Raphaël Gross
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was two-fold: (1) to quantify the variability of upper limb electromyographic patterns during elbow movements in typically developing children and children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy, and to compare different amplitude normalization methods; (2) to develop a method using this variability to detect (a) deviations in the patterns of a child with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy from the average patterns of typically developing children, and (b) changes after treatment to reduce muscle activation...
September 5, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Steven M Koehler, Andrew P Matson, David S Ruch, Suhail K Mithani
BACKGROUND: In the setting of the rapid advancement of integumentary vascular knowledge, we hypothesized that the extrinsic blood supply to the major peripheral nerves of the upper extremity could be categorized into discrete neural "perforasomes". METHODS: Total limb perfusion of the arterial system was performed with gelatin-red lead oxide in cadaveric upper limbs. The perforating vessels to the radial, median and ulnar nerves were identified, confirmed with fluoroscopy and dissected...
September 1, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Fiesky A Nunez, Peter J Evans
Restoration of longitudinal stability of the forearm continues to pose a difficult challenge for the hand surgeon, and no technique has demonstrated success above others. Longitudinal stability to the forearm is conferred by 3 structures: the radial head, which acts as a primary stabilizer, the interosseous membrane, more specifically, the central band and, the distal radioulnar ligaments which are part of the triangular fibrocartilage complex. A combination of techniques is described in this article to address chronic longitudinal instability of the forearm: (1) ulnar shortening osteotomy to restore ulnar variance, (2) pronator teres transfer was used to reconstruct the central band of the interosseous membrane, and (3) tightrope augmentation was used to prevent elongation during the healing process...
September 2018: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
Hiroshi Satake, Yumiko Kanauchi, Hideo Kashiwa, Daisuke Ishigaki, Masatoshi Takahara, Michiaki Takagi
BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to clarify the long-term (≥10 years) results of simple rotational osteotomy for congenital radioulnar synostosis (CRUS). METHODS: Twelve forearms in 9 Asian patients with CRUS who underwent simple rotational osteotomy of the radius shaft were monitored for an average of 13.6 years (range, 10-19 years) postoperatively. Before surgery, the forearm fixation averaged 51.3° of pronation (range, 30°-90°). The true position of the forearm in ankylosis was measured by a line through the styloid processes of the radius and the ulna...
August 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Akira Saito, Hiroshi Minagawa, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Tsutomu Kawasaki, Kyoji Okada
BACKGROUND: Although the pronator teres muscle, a major dynamic stabilizer of elbow valgus stress during throwing, frequently presents stiffness, its relationship with elbow injuries in youth baseball players is unknown. This study investigated the relationship between the elasticity of the pronator teres muscle and elbow injuries in youth baseball players. METHODS: The strain ratio (SR) of 15 individuals with osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum (OCD group), 67 individuals with medial epicondylar fragmentation (medial injury group), and 115 healthy individuals (control group) was measured as the index of the elasticity of the pronator teres muscle using ultrasound strain elastography...
September 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Marion Helin, Manon Bachy, Claire Stanchina, Frank Fitoussi
The objective of this study was to evaluate the results after selective pronator teres (PT) neurectomy in children with spastic hemiplegia. Patients with PT spasticity without contracture and an active supination improvement after PT botulinum toxin injection were included. Hand function and deformities were evaluated with the House score, Gschwind and Tonkin pronation deformity classification and Zancolli's classification. Twenty-two patients (mean age 11.6 years) were included in this study. The average follow-up was 32...
October 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
Jun Li, Liangjie Du, Hongwei Liu, Feng Gao, Lu Liu, Yun Guo, Chong Wang, Mingliang Yang, Jianjun Li, Youle Zhang
Objective: To explore the effectiveness of functional reconstruction of hand grasp and pinch by tendon transfers in patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Methods: Between July 2013 and January 2016, tendon transfer surgery were performed in 21 patients (41 hands) with cervical spinal injury that motion level was located at C 6 to reconstruct hand grasp and pinch function. There were 18 males and 3 females with a mean age of 42.3 years (range, 17-65 years). Nineteen patients were with complete spinal cord injury [American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grading A], 1 patient was with central cord syndrome whose bilateral hands were completely paralyzed and lower limbs were normal (ASIA grading D), and 1 patient was with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (AISA grading D)...
May 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Arash Babaei-Ghazani, Peyman Roomizadeh, Esmaeil Nouri, Golnaz Raeisi, Naseh Yousefi, Mahdieh Asilian-Mahabadi, Mohammad Moeini
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultrasonographic reference values for diameters and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve between the two heads of the pronator teres muscle in healthy population as well as to correlate the findings with height, weight, sex and age. METHODS: Fifty-five healthy Caucasian volunteers (110 median nerves) were included in this study. The reference range (mean ± 2 standard deviations; 2.5th-97.5th quintiles) and the upper limit of side-to-side difference of the median nerve between the two heads of the pronator teres muscle were investigated using high-frequency ultrasound...
September 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Claudia Ghisa, Evan Peck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Paolo Arrigoni, Davide Cucchi, Enrico Guerra, Francesco Luceri, Simone Nicoletti, Alessandra Menon, Pietro Randelli
PURPOSE: Arthroscopic reduction and internal fixation for coronoid process fractures has been proposed to overcome limitations of open approaches. Currently, arthroscopy is most frequently used to assist insertion of a retrograde guide wire for a retrograde cannulated screw. The present anatomical study presents an innovative arthroscopic technique to introduce an antegrade guide wire from an accessory anteromedial portal and evaluates its safety and reproducibility. METHODS: Six fresh-frozen cadaver specimens were obtained and prepared to mimic an arthroscopic setting...
April 2, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Paola Contessa, John Letizi, Gianluca De Luca, Joshua C Kline
The control of motor unit firing behavior during fatigue is still debated in the literature. Most studies agree that the central nervous system increases the excitation to the motoneuron pool to compensate for decreased force contributions of individual motor units and sustain muscle force output during fatigue. However, some studies claim that motor units may decrease their firing rates despite increased excitation, contradicting the direct relationship between firing rates and excitation that governs the voluntary control of motor units...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Edie Benedito Caetano, Luiz Angelo Vieira, Tyago Araújo Almeida, Luis Andres Montero Gonzales, José Eduardo de Bona, Thais Mayor Simonatto
Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the anatomic variations of the bicipital aponeurosis (BA) (lacertus fibrosus) and its implications for the compression of the median nerve, which is positioned medially to the brachial artery, passing under the bicipital aponeurosis. Methods: Sixty upper limbs of 30 cadavers were dissected, 26 of which were male and four, female; of the total, 15 had been previously preserved in formalin and glycerine and 15 were dissected fresh in the Laboratory of Anatomy...
January 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
Joseph Bader, Michael R Boland, Desney Greybe, Arthur Nitz, Timothy Uhl, David Pienkowski
This study aimed to provide quantitative activation data for muscles of the forearm during pronation and supination while using a power grip. Electromyographic data was collected from 15 forearm muscles in 11 subjects while they performed maximal isometric pronating and supinating efforts in nine positions of forearm rotation. Biceps brachii was the only muscle with substantial activation in only one effort direction. It was significantly more active when supinating (µ = 52.1%, SD = 17.5%) than pronating (µ = 5...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Edie Benedito Caetano, João José Sabongi Neto, Lucas Augusto Ayres Ribas, Edson Vinícius Milanello
Anatomical variations of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle and tendon unit are frequently reported by anatomists and clinicians. Anatomical muscle variations of the FDS and its tendons may include variations of muscle belly, presence of accessory or duplicate tendons, abnormal tendon connections, and absence of muscle or tendon components. Such variations may or may not have clinical implications. This report presents a case not described previously: a unilateral accessory muscle of the flexor digitorum superficialis which was connected by a thick tendon to the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle; it was directed proximally to the insertion of the medial epicondyle of the humerus, next to the superficialis head of the pronator teres muscle...
November 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
Shinichi Abe, Naomitsu Tomita, Masahito Yamamoto, Minako Sato, Hiroshi Abe, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez
The median nerve passes through the humeral and ulnar heads of the pronator teres muscle (PT), although variations such as absence of the ulnar head may exist. We observed histological sections of the upper extremity from 24 embryos and fetuses. In the early stage, the PT extended between the radius and the medial epicondyle of the humerus, but no candidate for the ulnar head was found. In mid-term fetuses, the ulnar margin of the PT was attached to the elbow joint capsule. Moreover, in late-stage fetuses, a small deep part of the PT arose from the thick joint capsule of the humero-ulnar joint near the coronoid process of the ulna...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Mukul Mohindra, Paritosh Gogna, Sukhbir Singh Sangwan, Sahil Gaba, Zile Singh Kundu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of tendon transfers and universal cuff in restoring hand function in tetraplegic patients. METHODS: Twenty-one upper limbs on 12 tetraplegic patients (9 males and 3 females); mean age: 42.2 years (range 22-58 years) with a spinal cord injury at or distal to C6, were included in this study. Key pinch was restored using Brachioradialis to Flexor Pollicis Longus transfer and hook using Pronator Teres to Flexor Digitorum Profundus transfer...
October 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Edie Benedito Caetano, João José Sabongi, Luiz Angelo Vieira, Maurício Ferreira Caetano, José Eduardo de Bona, Thais Mayor Simonatto
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and anatomical characteristics of Struthers' ligament and the supracondylar humeral process and evaluate the clinical implications in compressive neuropathy of the median nerve . METHOD: We dissected 60 arms from 30 cadavers (26 males and 4 females): 15 were previously preserved in formalin and glycerin and 15 were dissected fresh in the Anatomy Laboratory for this paper. The relationships between Struthers' ligament and the median nerve and brachial artery and veins were documented with drawings and photos ...
July 2017: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
S Kumari, P Chauhan, M Kathole, J Arora, R K Suri, M Kohli
Muscles of flexor compartment of forearm have a common origin from medial epicondyle of humerus. Additional bellies of flexor muscles are commonly reported but presence of supernumerary muscles is an infrequent phenomenon. The present study describes an unusual muscle mass in flexor compartment of forearm simulating pronator teres. During routine dissection the upper limb of a 50 years old male cadaver, a supernumerary muscle was found on left side of the upper limb in the flexor compartment. The origin of the muscle was 2cm wide and aponeurotic in nature and attached to an oblique line extending from the inferior surface of the medial epicondyle and the medial surface of the trochlea...
March 2018: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
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