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sediment-related disaster

Lixia Yang, Guishan Yang, Henpeng Li, Shaofeng Yuan
Soil erosion induced by rainfall has become one of the major environmental disasters. It can lead to degradation of land productivity and water pollution, which limit human survival and development. Therefore, understanding the effects of rainfall intensities on soil nutrient and sediment transportation from farmland via surface runoff is important. This study simulated three types of rainfall intensities (low intensity 0.83 mm min-1 ; medium intensity 1.17 mm min-1 and 1.67 mm min-1 ; and high intensity 2...
February 18, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Takuya Yamaguchi, Takeshi Sato, Masahiko Katoh
The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami in 2011 generated massive amounts of disaster waste and tsunami deposits, one-third of which comprised soil and sediment, which are expected to be re-used; however, there has been no previous experience or knowledge of recovered soil. In this study, up-flow column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the elemental leaching behavior in this soil and sediment following its separation and treatment (hereafter termed "recovered soil") to assess whether it can be safely re-used without posing any environmental risk...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Haoyuan Hong, Paraskevas Tsangaratos, Ioanna Ilia, Junzhi Liu, A-Xing Zhu, Wei Chen
In China, floods are considered as the most frequent natural disaster responsible for severe economic losses and serious damages recorded in agriculture and urban infrastructure. Based on the international experience prevention of flood events may not be completely possible, however identifying susceptible and vulnerable areas through prediction models is considered as a more visible task with flood susceptibility mapping being an essential tool for flood mitigation strategies and disaster preparedness. In this context, the present study proposes a novel approach to construct a flood susceptibility map in the Poyang County, JiangXi Province, China by implementing fuzzy weight of evidence (fuzzy-WofE) and data mining methods...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Daniel Magnone, Laura A Richards, David A Polya, Charlotte Bryant, Merren Jones, Bart E van Dongen
The poisoning of rural populations in South and Southeast Asia due to high groundwater arsenic concentrations is one of the world's largest ongoing natural disasters. It is important to consider environmental processes related to the release of geogenic arsenic, including geomorphological and organic geochemical processes. Arsenic is released from sediments when iron-oxide minerals, onto which arsenic is adsorbed or incorporated, react with organic carbon (OC) and the OC is oxidised. In this study we build a new geomorphological framework for Kandal Province, a highly studied arsenic affected region of Cambodia, and tie this into wider regional environmental change throughout the Holocene...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
R C Cagnin, V S Quaresma, G Chaillou, T Franco, A C Bastos
This study focuses on the vertical distribution of total and reactive As in two contrasted coastal sedimentary environments: the Abrolhos Continental Shelf (ACS), a carbonate and siliciclastic shelf sediment, and the Doce River Continental Shelf (DRCS), a submerged delta system. The Doce River was the location of a massive ore tailings dam collapsed in November 2015. Millions of liters of tailings were dumped into the river and reached the continental shelf, causing the country's biggest environmental disaster...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Steffen Mischke, Chenglin Liu, Jiafu Zhang, Chengjun Zhang, Hua Zhang, Pengcheng Jiao, Birgit Plessen
Remnants of cities and farmlands in China's hyperarid Tarim Basin indicate that environmental conditions were significantly wetter two millennia ago in a region which is barren desert today. Historical documents and age data of organic remains show that the Loulan Kingdom flourished during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) but was abandoned between its end and 645 CE. Previous archaeological, geomorphological and geological studies suggest that deteriorating climate conditions led to the abandonment of the ancient desert cities...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Meredith Evans, Jiqing Liu, Hernando Bacosa, Brad E Rosenheim, Zhanfei Liu
An important aspect of oil spill science is understanding how the compounds within spilled oil, especially toxic components, change with weathering. In this study we follow the evolution of petroleum hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, on a Louisiana beach and salt marsh for three years following the Deepwater Horizon spill. Relative to source oil, we report overall depletion of low molecular weight n-alkanes and PAHs in all locations with time. The magnitude of depletion, however, depends on the sampling location, whereby sites with highest wave energy have highest compound depletion...
February 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Scott A Stout, James R Payne
Chemical analysis of sediment cores collected up to 8km from the Macondo well in 2010/2011 demonstrates the extent of weathering of the Macondo oil deposited in deep-sea sediments following the Deepwater Horizon disaster. On average, dissolution and biodegradation of the oil on the seafloor increased with distance from the well indicating that weathering occurred rapidly and overwhelmingly during the oil's transport as dispersed oil droplets within the deep-sea plume. Beyond about 5km from the well, the oil deposited on the seafloor had lost most mass below C25, was relatively enriched in n-C25+ n-alkanes and C3- and C4-alkylated benz[a]anthracenes/chrysenes, the latter owing to 95% depletion of total PAHs...
October 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Guilherme R Lotufo, J Daniel Farrar, James M Biedenbach, Jennifer G Laird, Michelle O Krasnec, Claire Lay, Jeffrey M Morris, Michel L Gielazyn
Crude oil released from the Deepwater Horizon disaster into the Gulf of Mexico posed potential impacts to infaunal invertebrates inhabiting near shore habitats. The effects of sediment-associated weathered slick oil on the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus was assessed using 28-d exposures to total PAH sediment concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 24mg/kg (sum of 50 PAHs or tPAH50). Survival and growth rate were significantly decreased in the 2.6, 11.4 and 24.2mg/kg treatments, but only growth in 5.5mg/kg. Offspring production was dramatically decreased but was variable and significantly different only for 24...
August 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Mayu Onozato, Atsuko Nishigaki, Kenji Okoshi
Surface sediments and at least one edible bivalve species (Ruditapes philippinarum, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and Crassostrea gigas) were collected from each of seven intertidal sites in Japan in 2013. The sites had experienced varying levels of tsunami and fire disturbance following the major earthquake of 2011. Eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total sediment PAH concentration (CT), the sum of the average concentrations of the eight PAHs, was 21-1447 μg kg-1-dry...
2016: PloS One
Takeshi Nakamura, Hiroshi Takenaka, Taro Okamoto, Michihiro Ohori, Seiji Tsuboi
Long-period ground motions in plain and basin areas on land can cause large-scale, severe damage to structures and buildings and have been widely investigated for disaster prevention and mitigation. However, such motions in ocean-bottom areas are poorly studied because of their relative insignificance in uninhabited areas and the lack of ocean-bottom strong-motion data. Here, we report on evidence for the development of long-period (10-20 s) motions using deep ocean-bottom data. The waveforms and spectrograms demonstrate prolonged and amplified motions that are inconsistent with attenuation patterns of ground motions on land...
2015: Scientific Reports
Tomoaki Goto, Haruka Shibata
Abundance and composition of anthropogenic marine debris were assessed on the basis of six bottom trawl surveys conducted on the continental slope off Iwate Prefecture, Pacific coast of northern Japan, in 2003, 2004 and 2011, and the temporal changes due to the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 evaluated. In 2003 and 2004, 54-94 items km(-2) of marine debris, dominated by sea-base sourced items mainly comprising fishing gear and related items from adjacent fishing grounds on the continental shelf, were quantified...
June 15, 2015: Marine Pollution Bulletin
R Eugene Turner, Edward B Overton, Buffy M Meyer, M Scott Miles, Giovanna McClenachan, Linda Hooper-Bui, Annette Summers Engel, Erick M Swenson, James M Lee, Charles S Milan, Heng Gao
We measured the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in 405 wetland sediment samples immediately before the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster led to their broad-scale oiling, and on nine trips afterwards. The average concentrations of alkanes and PAHs were 604 and 186 times the pre-spill baseline values, respectively. Oil was distributed with some attenuation up to 100m inland from the shoreline for alkanes, but increased for aromatics, and was not well-circumscribed by the rapid shoreline assessments (a...
October 15, 2014: Marine Pollution Bulletin
M Briestenský, L Thinová, R Praksová, J Stemberk, M D Rowberry, Z Knejflová
Tectonic instability may be measured directly using extensometers installed across active faults or it may be indicated by anomalous natural gas concentrations in the vicinity of active faults. This paper presents the results of fault displacement monitoring at two sites in the Bohemian Massif and Western Carpathians. These data have been supplemented by radon monitoring in the Mladeč Caves and by carbon dioxide monitoring in the Zbrašov Aragonite Caves. A significant period of tectonic instability is indicated by changes in the fault displacement trends and by anomalous radon and carbon dioxide concentrations...
July 2014: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Xue-ying Di, Yu-zhu Tao
The occurrence of the secondary disasters of forest fire has significant impacts on the environment quality and human health and safety. Post-fire debris flow is one of the most hazardous secondary disasters of forest fire. To understand the occurrence conditions of post-fire debris flow and to master its occurrence situation are the critical elements in post-fire hazard assessment. From the viewpoints of vegetation, precipitation threshold and debris flow material sources, this paper elaborated the impacts of forest fire on the debris flow, analyzed the geologic and geomorphic conditions, precipitation and slope condition that caused the post-fire debris flow as well as the primary mechanisms of debris-flow initiation caused by shallow landslide or surface runoff, and reviewed the research progress in the prediction and forecast of post-fire debris flow and the related control measures...
August 2013: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Teruhisa Watabe, Shinji Oikawa, Naohiko Isoyama, Chiyoshi Suzuki, Jun Misonoo, Shigemitsu Morizono
The historic spatiotemporal distribution of 137Cs in the seawaters and sea-floor sediments adjacent to nuclear power plants in Japan are summarized, using data obtained over a period of time more than 20 years prior to the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. Relatively uniform distributions of 137Cs were observed both in the surface seawaters (1 m in depth) and in deeper seawaters (10 to 30 m above the seabed and ranging from tens to hundreds of meters in depth) independent of the geographical position, although lower concentrations were observed in significantly deeper bottom seawaters...
October 1, 2013: Science of the Total Environment
Gideon Bartov, Amrika Deonarine, Thomas M Johnson, Laura Ruhl, Avner Vengosh, Heileen Hsu-Kim
Mercury stable isotope abundances were used to trace transport of Hg-impacted river sediment near a coal ash spill at Harriman, Tennessee, USA. δ(202)Hg values for Kingston coal ash released into the Emory River in 2008 are significantly negative (-1.78 ± 0.35‰), whereas sediments of the Clinch River, into which the Emory River flows, are contaminated by an additional Hg source (potentially from the Y-12 complex near Oak Ridge, Tennessee) with near-zero values (-0.23 ± 0.16‰). Nominally uncontaminated Emory River sediments (12 miles upstream from the Emory-Clinch confluence) have intermediate values (-1...
February 19, 2013: Environmental Science & Technology
Annelies van Hoesel, Wim Z Hoek, Freek Braadbaart, Johannes van der Plicht, Gillian M Pennock, Martyn R Drury
The controversial Younger Dryas impact hypothesis suggests that at the onset of the Younger Dryas an extraterrestrial impact over North America caused a global catastrophe. The main evidence for this impact--after the other markers proved to be neither reproducible nor consistent with an impact--is the alleged occurrence of several nanodiamond polymorphs, including the proposed presence of lonsdaleite, a shock polymorph of diamond. We examined the Usselo soil horizon at Geldrop-Aalsterhut (The Netherlands), which formed during the Allerød/Early Younger Dryas and would have captured such impact material...
May 15, 2012: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Crystal Warren, Nurdan S Duzgoren-Aydin, James Weston, Kristine L Willett
Hurricanes are relatively frequent ecological disturbances that may cause potentially long-term impacts to the coastal environment. Hurricane Katrina hit the Mississippi Gulf Coast in August 2005, and caused a storm surge with the potential to change the trace element content of coastal surface sediments. In this study, surface estuarine and marine sediments were collected monthly following the storm from ten sites along the Mississippi Gulf Coast (Mobile Bay, Grand Bay Bayous Heron and Cumbest, Pascagoula, Ocean Springs, Biloxi Gulf, Back Biloxi Bay, Gulfport Gulf, Gulfport Courthouse Rd, and Gulfport Marina)...
January 2012: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
M Stone, M B Emelko, I G Droppo, U Silins
The erosion characteristics and bed stability of wildfire-affected stream sediment were measured in an annular flume. Biofilms were grown in the flume on cohesive streambed sediments collected from a wildfire affected stream and a reference undisturbed stream in southern Alberta, Canada. Examined factors that influence sediment erosion, settling and bed stability included applied shear stress, geochemical and physical properties of the sediment, floc structural characteristics and consolidation period (2, 7, 14 days)...
January 2011: Water Research
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