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consciousness AND microbiota

Alexandria Turner, Martin Veysey, Simon Keely, Christopher Scarlett, Mark Lucock, Emma L Beckett
The type 2 family of taste receptors (T2Rs) detect and respond to bitter tastants. These receptors are expressed throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, with location dependant roles. In the oral cavity, T2Rs are involved in the conscious perception of bitter tastants, while in the lower GI tract they have roles in chemoreception and regulation of GI function. Through these diverse roles, these receptors may be involved in modulating appetite and diet, with consequences for weight regulation and obesity...
September 20, 2018: Nutrients
Laura Glendinning, Steven Wright, Peter Tennant, Andrew C Gill, David Collie, Gerry McLachlan
The lung microbiota is commonly sampled using relatively invasive bronchoscopic procedures. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection potentially offers a less invasive alternative for lung microbiota sampling. We compared lung microbiota samples retrieved by protected specimen brushings (PSB) and exhaled breath condensate collection. We also sought to assess whether aerosolized antibiotic treatment would influence the lung microbiota and whether this change could be detected in EBC. EBC was collected from 6 conscious sheep and then from the same anesthetized sheep during mechanical ventilation...
June 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
F Goeser, S Schlabe, C E Ruiner, L Kramer, C P Strassburg, U Spengler
Fecal microbiota transplantation has gathered much attention due to its high efficacy in resolving recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Until today, it is recognized as a safe procedure without any severe side effects. Patients with impaired conscious states suffering from recurrent episodes of aspiration are at increased risk by endoscopic interventions needed during standard approaches for fecal microbiota transplantation application.Here, we illustrate the case of a tetraplegic patient undergoing fecal microbiota transplantation due to his fifth recurrent episode of Clostridium difficile infection using a self-advancing nasal jejunal feeding tube as effective minimal-invasive option of fecal microbiota transplantation application...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Bernhard Ramsauer, Christel König, Tobias Sabelhaus, Johann Ockenga, Jan-Michel Otte
BACKGROUND: Since the turn of the millennium there has been an alarming increase in the incidence and severity of clostridium difficile infections. Stopping medication with the triggering antibiotic and switching to a recommended antibiotic leads to healing up in 80%. However, patients who relapse have a 40% risk of an additional relapse and those with 2 or more episodes face a 60% risk. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new therapeutic option. Up to now there only exist two randomized studies (University of Amsterdam and the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston)...
May 25, 2016: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
Guy Boeckxstaens, Michael Camilleri, Daniel Sifrim, Lesley A Houghton, Sigrid Elsenbruch, Greger Lindberg, Fernando Azpiroz, Henry P Parkman
The fundamental gastrointestinal functions include motility, sensation, absorption, secretion, digestion and intestinal barrier function. Digestion of food and absorption of nutrients normally occurs without conscious perception. Symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders are often triggered by meal intake suggesting abnormalities in the physiological processes are involved in the generation of symptoms. In this manuscript, normal physiology and pathophysiology of gastrointestinal function, and the processes underlying symptom generation are critically reviewed...
February 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Katja Kovacic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are some of the most common and challenging disorders in pediatrics. Recurrent abdominal pain is the central feature of pain-associated FGIDs such as irritable bowel syndrome. A thorough understanding of current pathophysiological concepts is essential to successful management. RECENT FINDINGS: The brain-gut axis, role of microbiota and the biopsychosocial model are emerging concepts in FGIDs. The biopsychosocial model focuses on the interplay between genes, environment, and physical and psychosocial factors...
October 2015: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
V K Viswanathan
After dominating the earth in numbers and biomass for a good 3.5 billion years, microbes are now finally in the public consciousness. The vigorous surge in the study of microbes promises to yield novel approaches to treating diseases and maintaining health. In the middle of the deluge of scientific publications and lay articles, we pause to reflect on this trend.
July 1, 2014: Gut Microbes
Montiel-Castro, J Augusto, Báez-Yáñez, G Mario, Gustavo Pacheco-López
By focusing on the studies of primate behaviour and human neuroscience, we describe how different neurological processes are the base of proximate aspects of social-decision making. We also review the fact that distinct aspects of animal behaviour are not under conscious or abstract control and that instead they may be regulated by adaptive 'rules of thumb'. In particular, by describing the microbiota- gut-brain axis we elaborate on suggesting that microbiota has an influence on within-individual aspects of social decision making and in particular facilitating social interactions...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Gijs den Besten, Katja Lange, Rick Havinga, Theo H van Dijk, Albert Gerding, Karen van Eunen, Michael Müller, Albert K Groen, Guido J Hooiveld, Barbara M Bakker, Dirk-Jan Reijngoud
Acetate, propionate, and butyrate are the main short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that arise from the fermentation of fibers by the colonic microbiota. While many studies focus on the regulatory role of SCFAs, their quantitative role as a catabolic or anabolic substrate for the host has received relatively little attention. To investigate this aspect, we infused conscious mice with physiological quantities of stable isotopes [1-(13)C]acetate, [2-(13)C]propionate, or [2,4-(13)C2]butyrate directly in the cecum, which is the natural production site in mice, and analyzed their interconversion by the microbiota as well as their metabolism by the host...
December 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Fabrine Cecon, Luiz Eduardo Nunes Ferreira, Rosimeire Takaki Rosa, Lauren Christine Gursky, Alessandra de Paula e Carvalho, Lakshman Perera Samaranayake, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro Rosa
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The composition of oral microbiota in comatose patients remains uncertain. Some pulmonary pathogens may be found in dental biofilms or as part of the saliva microbiota. It is supposed that some pneumopathogenic microorganisms may overgrow in the mouths of comatose patients and spread to their lungs. METHODS: The oral colonization dynamics of staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts in nine comatose patients (group 1), and in 12 conscious patients that brushed their teeth at least twice a day (group 2) was evaluated...
December 2010: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Laura Tarkkila, Kirsti Kari, Jussi Furuholm, Aila Tiitinen, Jukka H Meurman
BACKGROUND: Despite conflicting results on the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) there is no doubt that many women benefit from it. Women using HRT are known to be more health conscious in general with putative positive implications in the mouth. However, we observed recently in our cohort hardly any difference in oral health status between HRT-users and non-users. There are only a few studies about HRT and oral microbiota. We hypothesized that counts of periodontal micro-organisms are lower in health-conscious HRT-users than non-users...
2010: BMC Oral Health
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