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Skin cancer. Melanoma

Jaeyong Shin, Kee Yang Chung, Eun-Cheol Park, Kyoung Ae Nam, Jin-Ha Yoon
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify subpopulations vulnerable to skin cancer by occupations, among individuals with Fitzpatrick skin types III and IV. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the national mortality registry of Korean National Statistical Office (KNSO) from 1993 to 2012, including all medical certificates of death written and confirmed by physicians. Medical certificates of death from 1993 to 2012 were obtained from the national mortality registry of Korean National Statistical Office...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Occupational Health
Peter Sarich, Karen Canfell, Emily Banks, Ellie Paige, Sam Egger, Grace Joshy, Rosemary Korda, Marianne Weber
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that people who develop serious health conditions are likely to cease drinking alcohol (sometimes known as 'sick-quitters'). We quantified the likelihood of quitting drinking in relation to the onset of a variety of health conditions. METHODS: Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ceasing alcohol consumption after diagnosis of 28 health conditions and four general indicators of health were derived from logistic regression among 97,852 drinkers aged ≥45 years between baseline (2006-2009) and median 5...
February 13, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Kelly G Paulson, Miranda Lahman, Aude G Chapuis, Isaac Brownell
Among all tumor types, skin cancers are profoundly sensitive to immunotherapy. Indeed, the recently reported response rates for anti-PD-1 (anti-programmed-death 1) therapy for cutaneous malignant melanomas (MM), Merkel cell carcinomas, basal cell carcinomas, cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and Kaposi sarcomas are all above 40%. This unique immunogenicity renders skin cancers as a paradigm for tumor-immune interactions and is driven by high mutational burdens, overexpressed tumor antigens and/or viral antigens...
February 8, 2019: International Immunology
Ruth E Farmer, Deborah Ford, Rohini Mathur, Nish Chaturvedi, Rick Kaplan, Liam Smeeth, Krishnan Bhaskaran
Background: Previous studies provide conflicting evidence on whether metformin is protective against cancer. When studying time-varying exposure to metformin, covariates such as body mass index (BMI) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) may act as both confounders and causal pathway variables, and so cannot be handled adequately by standard regression methods. Marginal structural models (MSMs) with inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) can correctly adjust for such confounders. Using this approach, the main objective of this study was to estimate the effect of metformin on cancer risk compared with risk in patients with T2DM taking no medication...
February 6, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Evgeni V Nikolaev, Andrew Zloza, Eduardo D Sontag
It was recently reported that acute influenza infection of the lung promoted distal melanoma growth in the dermis of mice. Melanoma-specific CD8+ T cells were shunted to the lung in the presence of the infection, where they expressed high levels of inflammation-induced cell-activation blocker PD-1, and became incapable of migrating back to the tumor site. At the same time, co-infection virus-specific CD8+ T cells remained functional while the infection was cleared. It was also unexpectedly found that PD-1 blockade immunotherapy reversed this effect...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Jennifer Sand, Gabriele Fenini, Serena Grossi, Paulina Hennig, Michela Di Filippo, Mitchell Levesque, Sabine Werner, Lars E French, Hans-Dietmar Beer
The inflammasome protein NLRP1 is an important innate immune sensor in human keratinocytes and mediates, together with the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and caspase-1, the activation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. These cytokines and inflammasomes can have in part opposing roles during tumorigenesis in mice. In contrast, ASC expression is impaired in different types of cancer in humans. In this study, we analyzed inflammasome activation and expression of inflammasome proteins including their downstream cytokines in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), a type of non-melanoma skin cancer derived from keratinocytes...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Katherine Mallin, Amanda Browner, Bryan Palis, Greer Gay, Ryan McCabe, Leticia Nogueira, Robin Yabroff, Lawrence Shulman, Matthew Facktor, David P Winchester, Heidi Nelson
BACKGROUND: The National Cancer Database (NCDB) is a hospital-based cancer registry that includes diagnostic, staging, treatment, and outcomes data for newly diagnosed cancer patients in the United States. The NCDB data include 31 million records for patients diagnosed between 1985-2015. A Participant User File based on a subset of these data has been available to researchers at facilities accredited by the Commission on Cancer since 2010. This study aimed to compare the number of incident cancer cases in the NCDB with a national population cancer registry...
February 8, 2019: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Alexander Christie, Pedro L Vera, Margaret Higgins, Sandeep Kumar, Matthew Lane, David Preston
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor drugs (PDE5i) and skin cancers in a large-scale study of Veterans. METHODS: This was a retrospective database review using the Department of Veterans Affairs Informatics and Computing Infrastructure database (VINCI). VINCI was searched 19 years for Veterans who received PDE5i treatment of erectile dysfunction. A non-PDE5i group of Veterans was selected for comparison analysis. Follow-up time, outpatient clinic visits and incidence of malignant melanoma (MM) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were measured in both groups...
February 5, 2019: Urology
Stefan Kristiansson, Johan Reizenstein, Mathias von Beckerath, Fredrik Landström
BACKGROUND: Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a cancer treatment modality where the intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic agents is enhanced by an applied electrical field. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term efficacy, safety and functional outcome after ECT treatment in high-risk non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) with curative intent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with SCC or BCC in the head and neck area were treated with ECT with intratumoral bleomycin administration...
February 8, 2019: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Rachael C Barlow, David Sheng Yi Chan, Sharon Mayor, Ceri Perkins, Helen L Lawton, Arfon Gmt Powell, Wyn G Lewis
Background: Risk profile assessment and corrective interventions using optimisation of health status and prehabilitation represent an important strategy in the management of patients with a suspected cancer diagnosis. Aim: To determine the feasibility of pre-treatment optimisation and prehabilitation commenced at index primary care consultation, to improve patients' preparation for treatment by maximising the time available. Design & setting: Between January 2015 and May 2016, 195 patients presenting to 12 GP practices were deemed eligible to enter the study, of which 189 (96...
December 2018: BJGP Open
Yanqian Wang, Gang Liu, Lin Ren, Kun Wang, Aimin Liu
Melanoma is an aggressive type of skin cancer, characterized by high mortality rates worldwide. Therefore, the identification of new diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for melanoma is imperative. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in tumor initiation and progression. It was recently reported that the expression of lncRNA taurine upregulated 1 (TUG1) was relatively higher in cancer compared with that in normal cells, and that TUG1 promoted the progression of various cancers...
January 28, 2019: International Journal of Oncology
Jessica A Lavery, Allison Lipitz-Snyderman, Diane G Li, Peter B Bach, Katherine S Panageas
PURPOSE: Medicare claims provide a rich data source for large-scale quality assessment because data are available for all beneficiaries nationally. For cancer surgery, the absence of information regarding site of cancer and date of diagnosis on an administrative claim necessitates testing to ensure accurate quality assessment and public reporting. METHODS: Using the SEER Medicare-linked database as the gold standard, we developed and tested an approach to identify cancer-directed surgeries from Medicare fee-for-service claims alone...
February 2019: JCO Clinical Cancer Informatics
Lukasz Kuryk, Anne-Sophie W Møller, Magnus Jaderberg
Malignant melanoma is an aggressive type of skin cancer whose incidence is increasing globally. Although surgery is effective in early stage melanoma, patients with advanced melanoma only have a 20% 5-year survival rate. Hence, combinations of existing and new immunotherapy technologies and immunotherapeutic agents are being evaluated. ONCOS-102 is an oncolytic adenovirus armed with human GM-CSF and an Ad5/3 chimeric capsid. It has shown to be well tolerated in phase I study (NCT01598129) wherein it induced antitumor immunity, infiltration of CD8 + T cells to tumors, and up-regulation of PD-L1...
2019: Oncoimmunology
Jean-Phillip Okhovat, Steven R Tahan, Caroline C Kim
Acral lentiginous melanomas account for less than 5% of all melanomas, whereas amelanotic melanomas account for around 2-8% of all melanomas. Amelanotic acral lentiginous melanomas are even less common and can often be mistaken for other clinical entities, including pyogenic granulomas, non-melanoma skin cancers, and warts. We describe a man in his 50s with a twenty-year history of a skin-colored plaque on the right plantar foot; after enlargement and failure of wart treatment, a shave biopsy revealed an amelanotic melanoma...
January 15, 2019: Dermatology Online Journal
Anna Lisa Frauchiger, Reinhard Dummer, Joanna Mangana
Malignant melanoma is a cancer with increasing incidence worldwide with relevant socioeconomic impact. Despite progress in prevention and early detection, it is one of the most lethal forms of skin cancer. Therefore it is urgent need to identify suitable biomarkers in order to improve early diagnosis, precise staging, and prognosis, as well as for therapy selection and monitoring. In this book chapter, we are focusing on S100B and discuss its clinical relevance in melanoma.
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Priyanka Prasad, Andrea Vasas, Judit Hohmann, Anupam Bishayee, Dona Sinha
Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive form of skin cancer which has a propensity for metastasis. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a primordial role in the progression of metastatic disease. Metastatic melanoma is resistant to conventional therapies. Hence, researchers have been exploring alternative approaches, including the utility of bioactive phytochemicals to manage metastatic disease. In the present study, we investigated the potential of cirsiliol, a flavonoid isolated from Centaurea jacea L...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Da Meng, Richard D Carvajal
Metastatic melanoma is a heterogenous disease that has served as a model for the development of both targeted therapy and immunotherapy. KIT-mutated melanoma represents a rare subset, most commonly arising from acral, mucosal, and chronically sun-damaged skin. Additionally, KIT alterations are enriched in the triple wild-type subtype of cutaneous melanoma. Activating alterations of KIT-a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase important for cell development, growth, and differentiation-have been shown to be critical to oncogenesis across many tumor subtypes...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Zahra Payandeh, Maral Yarahmadi, Ziba Nariman-Saleh-Fam, Vahideh Tarhriz, Maryam Islami, Abdolreza Mehdinavaz Aghdam, Shirin Eyvazi
Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer which develops from the occurrence of genetic mutations in the melanocytes. Based on the features of melanoma tumors such as location, genetic profile and stage, there are several therapeutic strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, because of the appearance resistance mechanisms, the efficiency of these treatments strategies may be reduced. It has been demonstrated that therapeutic monoclonal antibodies can improve the efficiency of melanoma therapies...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Guoqiao Zheng, Subhayan Chattopadhyay, Amit Sud, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist, Asta Försti, Richard Houlston, Akseli Hemminki, Kari Hemminki
Improvement of survival in lymphocytic leukaemia has been accompanied by the occurrence of second primary cancer (SPCs). Based on Swedish Family Cancer Database, we applied bi-directional analyses in which relative risks (RRs) were calculated for any SPCs in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) and the risks of these leukaemias as SPCs. After CLL, RRs were significant for 20 SPCs, and high for skin squamous cell cancer (24·58 for in situ and 7·63 for invasive), Merkel cell carcinoma (14·36), Hodgkin lymphoma (7·16) and Kaposi sarcoma (6·76)...
January 31, 2019: British Journal of Haematology
Donatella Iacono, Debora Basile, Lorenzo Gerratana, Maria G Vitale, Giacomo Pelizzari, Marika Cinausero, Elena Poletto, Puglisi Fabio, Gianpiero Fasola, Alessandro M Minisini
Advanced melanoma (AM) represents the leading cause of death from skin cancer. To date, the crucial role of the immune system in AM pathogenesis and progression is well known, but the prognostic value of clinicopathological characteristics remains unclear. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an ascertained prognostic indicator and previous data showed that AM patients treated with BRAF and MEK inhibitors with normal LDH values and fewer than three metastatic sites achieved a better outcome. Moreover, the neutrophil-to-lymphocytes ratio and the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) have been suggested as other potential prognostic factors...
January 29, 2019: Melanoma Research
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