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Professional practice

Helen Benson, Cherie Lucas, Shalom I Benrimoj, Kylie A Williams
Background Pharmacists are increasingly being included as members of general practice primary care teams. To date, there have been few published studies describing the competencies of general practice (GP) pharmacists and establishing their subsequent educational needs. Aim of the review The aim of this literature review is to establish the activities of pharmacists in general practice to inform the development of a comprehensive role description and competency map. Method A systematic literature search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, international pharmaceutical abstracts and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews was conducted from the start of the databases to August 2018...
March 16, 2019: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Shenade Baker, Ya Ping Lee, H Laetitia Hattingh
Background The need for greater collaboration between pharmacists and general practitioners in Australia facilitated the development of the practice pharmacist role. Practice pharmacists work from within general practices to provide services to patients and health professionals to improve the quality use of medications. Objective To explore the perceptions of Australian accredited pharmacists and pharmacists already working in general practices about current roles, facilitators and barriers, and remuneration expectations of practice pharmacists...
March 16, 2019: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Siân Davies, Christopher R Burton, Lynne Williams, Angela Tinkler
This implementation study sought to determine what works to support brief smoking cessation (BSC) in acute hospital settings, through exploration of organizational delivery and the role of healthcare professionals (HCPs). We used a realist approach, with embedded stakeholder engagement, within a large health organization. We conducted interviews (n = 27), a survey (n = 279) and organization documentation review (n = 44). The final programme theory suggests HCPs implement BSC when they value it as part of their role in contributing to improved patient outcomes; this is due to personal and professional influences, such as knowledge or experience...
March 15, 2019: Health Promotion International
Berthold H Jany, Robert Bals, Heike Buhr-Schinner, Michael Dreher, A Rembert Koczulla, Luitgard Jany, Andreas Meyer, Winfried Randerath
In comparison to other chronically ill people, patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have many additional difficulties to face and conquer. Due to the contribution of avoidable causes of their illness ("smokers' lung"), society holds people with COPD responsible for their disease, which in return often leads to stigmatization and social isolation. In addition, COPD patients commonly belong to a less privileged social class, own a low socioeconomic status, and lower education...
March 15, 2019: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Hannah Spierson, Susan Kamupira, Claire Storey, Alexander E P Heazell
BACKGROUND: In the UK, rates of neonatal postmortem (PM) are low. Consent for PM is required, and all parents should have the opportunity to discuss whether to have a post-mortem examination of their baby. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore neonatal healthcare professionals' experiences, knowledge, and views regarding the consent process for post-mortem examination after neonatal death. METHOD: An online survey of neonatal healthcare providers in the UK was conducted...
March 15, 2019: Neonatology
Berber S Laarman, Renée Jr Bouwman, Anke Je de Veer, Michelle Hendriks, Roland D Friele
INTRODUCTION: Disciplinary procedures can have serious consequences for the health, personal life and professional functioning of doctors. Until recently, specific disciplinary measures (reprimands) were publicly disclosed in the Netherlands. The perceived additional impact of disclosing reprimands on the professional and personal life of doctors is unclear. METHODS: All doctors who received a disciplinary measure from the Dutch Disciplinary Board between July 2012 and August 2016 were invited to partake in a 60-item questionnaire concerning the respondents' characteristics, the complaint, experience with the procedure and perceived impact of the procedure on health and professional functioning as reported by doctors themselves...
March 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Janeane Dart, Louise McCall, Susan Ash, Merran Blair, Cliona Twohig, Claire Palermo
BACKGROUND: Professionalism of health care practitioners is central to safe and ethical health care, and forms part of the trust that the public places in health care practitioners. Lapses in professionalism in health care present considerable challenges and can have serious consequences and outcomes. Teaching, learning, and assessing professionalism is an important component of nutrition and dietetics education. There is scant peer-reviewed published research related to professionalism in nutrition and dietetics...
March 13, 2019: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Melanie Fisher, Matthew Kiernan
INTRODUCTION: Following the investigation into the Mid Staffordshire Hospital (United Kingdom) and the subsequent Francis reports (2013 and 2015), all healthcare staff, including students, are called upon to raise concerns if they are concerned about patient safety. Despite this advice, it is evident that some individuals are reluctant to do so and the reasons for this are not always well understood. STUDY AIM: This research study provides an insight into the factors that influence student nurses to speak up or remain silent when witnessing sub-optimal care...
February 27, 2019: Nurse Education Today
Diana M Bensyl, Michael E King, Ashley Greiner
Applied epidemiology training occurs throughout an epidemiologist's career, beginning with academic instruction before workforce entry, continuing as professional development while working, and culminating with mentoring the next generation. Epidemiologists need ongoing training on advancements and relevant topics (e.g., informatics, laboratory science, emerging topics) to maintain and improve their skills. Even epidemiologists with advanced skills often want training on methodologic innovations or to practice a skill...
March 16, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jonathan M Samet, Alistair Woodward
This commentary addresses being an epidemiologist at a time when the field of epidemiology again faces a paradigm shift as the tools for research on human health draw increasingly on emerging technologies-various omics and new methods for collecting individual data at high intensity-and on new methods for carrying out research through administrative and healthcare data bases linked to biobanks. At the same time, epidemiologists in public health practice continue to face the usual array of challenges, but with the threat of global issues as well...
March 16, 2019: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jennifer K Walter, Emily Sachs, Theodore E Schall, Aaron G Dewitt, Victoria A Miller, Robert M Arnold, Chris Feudtner
BACKGROUND: Parents of children in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) report inadequate communication and a lack of empathy during conversations with their clinicians. OBJECTIVE: To assess quantitatively and qualitatively the contributions made by team members of different professions in communicating with parents during family meetings. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING/SUBJECTS: The pediatric CICU at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Emmanuelle Jean, Sonia Sevilla Guerra, Damien Contandriopoulos, Melanie Perroux, Kelley Kilpatrick, Adelaida Zabalegui
BACKGROUND: The complexity and difficulties involved in the development and implementation of health innovations, such as advanced practice nursing roles, result in slow and sporadic international acceptance. To manage this complexity, it is advisable to deepen understanding of the context in which these innovation processes take place. However, there is little research specifically concerned with contextual factors that influence the implementation of advanced practice nursing roles...
February 11, 2019: Nursing Outlook
Kelly Sarmiento, Zoe Donnell, Elizabeth Bell, Rosanne Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Current research recommends that students returning to school after a concussion should receive a return to school plan that is tailored to their individual symptoms. School professionals play important roles in designing and implementing the supports outlined in return to school plans. METHODS: This qualitative study explored middle and high school professionals' experiences with concussion, particularly their knowledge and perceptions of the injury and their experience with supporting students with concussion...
February 2019: Journal of Safety Research
Carla L MacLean, J Don Read
INTRODUCTION: Investigation tools used in occupational health and safety events need to support evidence-based judgments, especially when employed within biasing contexts, yet these tools are rarely empirically vetted. A common workplace investigation tool, dubbed for this study the "Cause Analysis (CA) Chart," is a checklist on which investigators select substandard actions and conditions that apparently contributed to a workplace event. This research tests whether the CA Chart supports quality investigative judgments...
February 2019: Journal of Safety Research
Michael Brannan, Matteo Bernardotto, Nick Clarke, Justin Varney
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals are key informants to support individual behaviour change, and although there has been some progress in empowering clinicians to promote physical activity and health at work, an effective strategy overarching the whole medical educational journey is still lacking. This report provides an overview from the Moving Healthcare Professionals programme (MHPP), a whole-system educational approach to embed prevention and physical activity promotion into clinical practice...
March 15, 2019: BMC Medical Education
Renuka Tipirneni, Edith C Kieffer, John Z Ayanian, Eric G Campbell, Cengiz Salman, Sarah J Clark, Tammy Chang, Adrianne N Haggins, Erica Solway, Matthias A Kirch, Susan D Goold
OBJECTIVES: Michigan expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) through a federal waiver that permitted state-mandated features, including an emphasis on primary care. We investigated the factors associated with Michigan primary care providers (PCPs)' decision to accept new Medicaid patients under Medicaid expansion. STUDY DESIGN: Statewide survey of PCPs informed by semistructured interviews. METHODS: After Michigan expanded Medicaid on April 1, 2014, we surveyed 2104 PCPs (including physician and nonphysician providers, such as nurse practitioners and physician assistants) with 12 or more assigned Medicaid expansion enrollees (response rate, 56%)...
March 2019: American Journal of Managed Care
Ulrike Erstling, Kirsten Karberg, Patricia Steffens-Korbanka
New treatment strategies and treatment possibilities as well as undertreatment due to the lack of medical specialists especially in rheumatology, necessitate a qualified further training of rheumatological assistant personnel. The increasing independent work of medical and rheumatological assistants expected by physicians with respect to patient management and practice organization, necessitates an intensive cooperation between the two professional groups. The aim is to guarantee the competent treatment of chronically ill patients with rheumatism...
March 12, 2019: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Cristina Martínez, Yolanda Castellano, Ana Andrés, Marcela Fu, Ariadna Feliu, Laura Antón, Montse Ballbè, Paz Fernández, Sandra Cabrera, Ana Riccobene, Eva Gavilan, Antoni Baena, Mercè Margalef, Olena Tigova, Núria Quirós, Olga Guillen, Assumpta Company, Esteve Fernández
PURPOSE: To assess changes in the self-reported performance of smoking cessation interventions according to the 5A's model (Ask; Advise; Assess; Assist; and Arrange follow-up) among clinicians; and to identify the main barriers and facilitators in smoking cessation implementation before and after an online smoking cessation training program. DESIGN: Pre-post evaluation. METHODS: We assessed self-reported smoking cessation interventions in the implementation of the 5A's model among clinicians working in Catalan hospitals (Spain)...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Katarzyna Zawisza, Aleksander Galas, Beata Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Tomasz Grodzicki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to create and validate a tool that could be implemented easily to recognize the presence and assess the level of neglect in community-dwelling older adults, and to provide information about the prevalence of the phenomenon in different subgroups of older adults in Poland. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The cross-sectional study of elder neglect and self-neglect was conducted in Lesser Poland in 2017. It included 2,443 face-to-face interviews with randomly selected community-dwelling individuals from among the general population (1,635), social service users (280), and hospital patients (528)...
March 15, 2019: Gerontologist
Jorie M Colbert-Getz, Katie Lappe, Michael Northrup, Danielle Roussel
Phenomenon: There is an abundance of literature on Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) in theory, but there are few studies on the EPAs in practice for undergraduate clinical education. In addition, little is known about the degree to which the EPAs are or are not aligned with physician assessors' performance schemas of the clerkship student. Investigating the degree to which physician assessors' performance schemas are already aligned with the activities described by the EPAs is critical for effective workplace assessment design...
March 15, 2019: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
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