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Intestinal And Transplantation

Nargis Khan, Laura Mendonca, Achal Dhariwal, Ghislaine Fontes, Dick Menzies, Jianguo Xia, Maziar Divangahi, Irah L King
Current treatments for tuberculosis (TB) are effective in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth, yet have significant side effects and do not prevent reinfection. Therefore, it is critical to understand why our host defense system is unable to generate permanent immunity to Mtb despite prolonged anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT). Here, we demonstrate that treatment of mice with the most widely used anti-TB drugs, rifampicin (RIF) or isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PYZ), significantly altered the composition of the gut microbiota...
February 19, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Augusto Lauro, Ignazio R Marino
Chronic rejection affects the long-term survival of solid-organ transplants, accounting for an incidence of between 5% and 10% after intestinal/multivisceral transplant. Because of unclear symptoms and signs and endoscopic findings, the diagnosis is often delayed. Presently, allograft removal represents the only available therapy due to the absence of effective pharmacologic approaches. Extensive research, through animal models, has been performed over the past 20 years to clarify the complex immune- and nonimmune-mediated mechanisms behind the development of chronic allograft enteropathy, with the aim of elucidating how to avert chronic rejection...
January 2019: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Rosalie C Oey, Laurelle van Tilburg, Nicole S Erler, Herold J Metselaar, Manon C W Spaander, Henk R van Buuren, Robert A de Man
Colorectal cancer screening with colonoscopy is commonly used in candidate patients for liver transplantation. We initiated this study to define the risk-benefit ratio of performing screening colonoscopy in this population. A retrospective observational study of all consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy during pre-liver transplantation screening between 2004-2017 was conducted. Endoscopic and pathological findings and clinical events potentially related to the colonoscopy in the 30 days after the procedure were registered and compared with a 30 days in-patient control time frame...
February 14, 2019: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Yanyan Zhou, Li Yu, Zheng Nan, Pingping Zhang, Biao Kan, Donghui Yan, Jianrong Su
BACKGROUND: Clinical characteristics (taxonomy, virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance ) of Aeromonas in isolated from extra-intestinal and intestinal infections were investigated to describe epidemiology, associated virulence factors and optimal therapy options. METHODS: Clinical samples (n = 115) of Aeromonas were collected from a general hospital in Beijing between the period 2015 and 2017. Taxonomy was investigate by Multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA), 10 putative virulence factors by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antimicrobial resistance to 15 antibiotics by use of the microbroth dilution method...
February 14, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Lasha Gogokhia, Kate Buhrke, Rickesha Bell, Brenden Hoffman, D Garrett Brown, Christin Hanke-Gogokhia, Nadim J Ajami, Matthew C Wong, Arevik Ghazaryan, John F Valentine, Nathan Porter, Eric Martens, Ryan O'Connell, Vinita Jacob, Ellen Scherl, Carl Crawford, W Zac Stephens, Sherwood R Casjens, Randy S Longman, June L Round
Bacteriophages are the most abundant members of the microbiota and have the potential to shape gut bacterial communities. Changes to bacteriophage composition are associated with disease, but how phages impact mammalian health remains unclear. We noted an induction of host immunity when experimentally treating bacterially driven cancer, leading us to test whether bacteriophages alter immune responses. Treating germ-free mice with bacteriophages leads to immune cell expansion in the gut. Lactobacillus, Escherichia, and Bacteroides bacteriophages and phage DNA stimulated IFN-γ via the nucleotide-sensing receptor TLR9...
February 13, 2019: Cell Host & Microbe
Anwin Joseph Kavanal, Joyita Bharati, Shelvin Kumar Vadi, Krishan Lal Gupta, Rajender Kumar, Bhagwant Rai Mittal
We present a case of a 22-year-old man with history of allogenic renal transplantation on immunosuppression, who underwent F-FDG-PET/CT to characterize a lesion in the transplanted kidney on ultrasonogram and contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging. PET/CT revealed FDG avid lesion in the transplanted kidney and mural thickening involving the distal ileum, ileocecal junction, and ileocolic lymph nodes. Subsequent histopathological examination from the renal lesion revealed renal cell carcinoma in the transplanted kidney...
February 8, 2019: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Armando Ganoza, George V Mazariegos, Ajai Khanna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past decades, visceral transplantation has become the standard of care for patients with irreversible intestinal failure who suffer complications of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after solid organ transplantation is a rare but often fatal complication with high mortality. GVHD after intestinal transplantation, given the large lymphoid content of the graft, is more frequent compared with other solid organs. It is a complex condition that may have varied clinical presentations...
February 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Xianping Li, Liqiong Song, Siyi Zhu, Yuchun Xiao, Yuanming Huang, Yuting Hua, Qiongfang Chu, Zhihong Ren
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infection is a serious challenge for clinical management and there is no effective treatment at present. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and probiotic intervention have been shown to be promising approaches for reducing the colonization of certain pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, however, no such studies have been done on VRE. In this study, we evaluated the effect of FMT and two Lactobacillus strains (Y74 and HT121) on the colonization of VRE in a VRE-infection mouse model...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Markus M Heimesaat, Ulrike Escher, Anne Grunau, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill
The globally rising incidences of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Psae) in humans and live-stock animals has prompted the World Health Organization to rate MDR Psae as serious threat for human health. Only little is known, however, regarding factors facilitating gastrointestinal Psae-acquisition by the vertebrate host and subsequently induced inflammatory sequelae. In the present study, we addressed whether subacute ileitis predisposed mice harboring a human gut microbiota for intestinal MDR Psae carriage and whether inflammatory responses might be induced following peroral challenge with the opportunistic pathogen...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Mahmoud Mona, Rehae Miller, Hui Li, Yun-Jong Park, Raafi Zaman, Li-Jun Yang, Seunghee Cha
Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune disease that destroys the salivary glands and results in severe dry mouth. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been recently proposed as a promising therapy for restoring cells in multiple degenerative diseases. We have recently utilized advanced proteomics biochemical assays to identify the key molecules involved in the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) of co-cultured mouse bone-marrow-derived MSCs mMSCs with primary salivary gland cells. Among the multiple transcription factors (TFs) that were differentially expressed, two major TFs were selected: muscle, intestine, and stomach expression-1 (MIST1) and transcription factor E2a (TCF3)...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Loes H C Nissen, Lauranne A A P Derikx, Anouk M E Jacobs, Carla M van Herpen, Wietske Kievit, Rob Verhoeven, Esther van den Broek, Elise Bekers, Tim van den Heuvel, Marieke Pierik, Janette Rahamat-Langendoen, Robert P Takes, Willem J G Melchers, Iris D Nagtegaal, Frank Hoentjen
Background: Immunosuppressed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at increased risk to develop extra-intestinal malignancies. Immunosuppressed transplant patients show increased incidence of head and neck cancer with impaired survival. This study aims to identify risk factors for oral cavity (OCC) and pharyngeal carcinoma (PC) development in IBD, to compare clinical characteristics in IBD with the general population, and to assess the influence of immunosuppressive medication on survival...
August 16, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Asama Lekbua, Jodie Ouahed, Amy E O'Connell, Stacy A Kahn, Jeffrey D Goldsmith, Toshihiko Imamura, Christine N Duncan, Judith R Kelsen, Elizabeth Worthey, Scott B Snapper, Samir Softic
Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) represents a diagnostic and treatment challenge. Here we present a case of VEO-IBD secondary to a mutation in BIRC4 gene, which encodes X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), in a 17 month-old male with severe failure to thrive, intractable diarrhea and hepatosplenomegaly. Endoscopy and histology identified only mild duodenitis and ileitis, but severe pancolitis with crypt abscesses and epithelium apoptosis. Minimal improvement in symptoms was achieved with total parenteral nutrition (TPN), intravenous (IV) corticosteroids and tacrolimus, whereas induction and maintenance therapy with adalimumab led to complete remission...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Elliot T Walters, Kevin D Han, Anna C Howell, Michael V DeFazio, Reuben Falola, Sarah R Sher, Thomas M Fishbein, Cal S Matsumoto, Karen K Evans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: American Surgeon
N Beghdadi, A Soprani, A Kraemer, P Bucur, C Barrat, L Genser
BACKGROUND: Severe post-operative malnutrition (SM) is a dreaded complication after gastric bypass often related to the short bowel syndrome consecutive limb length mismeasurement or intestinal resections. Patients with rapid weight loss or malnutrition can experience liver failure with cirrhosis and require liver transplantation (LT). Malnutrition can constitute a contraindication to LT since it negatively impacts on postoperative morbidity. RYGB reversal is an effective option to consider when nutritional support has failed...
February 11, 2019: Obesity Surgery
Nicholas J Geraghty, Lisa Belfiore, Sam R Adhikary, Stephen I Alexander, Ronald Sluyter, Debbie Watson
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a frequent complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with current therapies limited to general immunosuppression. Humanized mouse models of GVHD are emerging as valuable intermediaries to allow translation of findings from allogeneic mouse models to humans to prevent and treat this disease, but such models require further characterization. In this study, humanized mice were generated by injecting immunodeficient non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency interleukin-2 receptor γ common chain null (NSG) mice with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs)...
February 8, 2019: Transplant Immunology
Ling Qi, Fei Li
Intestinal microbiome closely relates with human health and disease, which plays a critical role in the immune response, homeostasis, drug metabolism and tumorigenesis. Imbalances in the composition and function of these intestinal microbes associate with diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an established successful treatment modality for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The safety profile and potential therapeutic advantages of FMT for diseases associated with dysbiosis and immune dysfunction have led to many publications, mainly case series...
February 2019: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Xiao-Yu Chen, Shun-Qing Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the change of microbial diversity and its relation with gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). METHODS: Fecal samples were collected at the time point of 2 weeks before transplantation (pre-transplant group), 1 month after transplantation (post-tranplant group) and onset of GI GVHD in 65 hematonosis patients, which were also collected in 26 donors and 10 healthy subjects (control group)...
February 2019: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Igor Alexander Harsch, Peter Christopher Konturek
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a novel strategy for the therapy of dysbiosis-associated disorders via modulation of the gut microbiota. Intestinal dysbiosis is associated not only with digestive disorders, but also with a variety of extra-digestive disorders. A worldwide increasing number of FMT can be expected in the future as well as an increase in adverse events. We describe the case of a patient with chronic radiation colitis that developed adhesion ileus 2 days after FMT. Since these problems never occured before and the short time interval favours a causality, we speculate about FMT-induced alterations in gut motility causing a "trapping" of the small intestine in an adhesion and other mechanisms beyond "pure" coincidence...
2019: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Pan Wang, Daotong Li, Weixin Ke, Dong Liang, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
OBJECTIVE: Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenol with putative anti-obesity effects; however, its mechanisms of action remain unclear due to its low bioavailability. Microbial functions in the physiology result from the microbiota-host coevolution has profoundly affected host metabolism. Here, we sought to determine how beneficial microbiome caused by RSV interventions affects antiobesity. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed either standard diet (SD) or RSV (300 mg/kg/day) diet for 16 weeks...
February 4, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Iliana Doycheva, Kymberly D Watt, Aliya F Gulamhusein
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare immune-mediated liver disease with few major advances in treatment options over the last several decades. Available options are effective in most patients albeit are imprecise in their mechanisms. Novel and more tolerable induction regimens and alternative options for management of patients intolerant or with suboptimal response to traditional therapies including in the post-transplant setting remain an important unmet need. This review aims to summarize recent data on pharmacological options and investigational drugs in development for patients with AIH...
February 4, 2019: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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